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語言聯盟

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書

語言聯盟粵拼jyu5 jin4 lyun4 mang4 | 德文Sprachbund)係指一拃語言因為歷史上距離近有過密切嘅接觸而產生好多相似性,但呢拃語言並嚟自同一個共同祖先嘅。

例子[編輯]

西歐[編輯]

内文:標準歐語

阿爾泰[編輯]

好似係阿爾泰(Altaic)「語系」噉,就被指係一個語言聯盟[1]-呢個「語系」包括日本話韓國話土耳其話等多隻嚟自歐亞大陸中北部嘅語言,呢啲語言之間有頗高嘅相似性,例如日本話同韓國話之間翻譯嗰陣成日可以做到「完全唔使掉換句子入面啲字嘅位置,淨係將源頭語言啲字換做目標語言入面嘅對應就得」(呢點反映兩隻語言响句法上好相似),令到有唔少語言學家提倡佢哋係同一個語系-出咗「阿爾泰語系」呢個諗頭;不過廿一世紀初嘅研究表明,呢幾隻語言早期歷史上出現「變到愈嚟愈似對方」嘅情形,而唔係好似一般嘅語系噉「隨時間變到愈嚟愈唔似對方」[2][3],所以畀主流語言學家話佢哋似係語言聯盟多啲。

日本話同韓國話嘅相似之處:

語言學界主流認為,日本話同韓國話唔同源,但兩者的確有好多相似之處,當中啲句法相似到有時可以做到一對一直譯,即係完全唔使掉換句子入面啲字嘅位置,淨係將源頭語言啲字換做目標語言入面嘅對應就得。例如兩隻語言都係跟 SOV 句法[4]

粵文:ngo5 hai6 hok6 saang1(漢字加粵字:我係學生
日本話:watashi ga gakusei-desu(假名加漢字:私は学生です
韓國話:na neun hagsaeng-ida(諺文나는학생이다

粵文係跟 SVO 句法嘅,句句子係主語)行先,然後係動詞),賓語學生)擺尾。相比之下,日本話同韓國話都係跟 SOV 嘅,

日本話:watashi()ga(簡化講就係隔開主語同賓語嘅一隻字)gakusei(學生)-desu(
韓國話:na()neun(又係用嚟隔開主語同賓語嘅一隻字)hagsaeng(學生)-ida(

-啲人攞住句日本話句子,可以將句句子每件元件轉換做韓國話入面嘅對應,途中完全唔使更改啲元件嘅次序,最後出到嗰句嘢會完全似自然嘅韓國話。

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Schönig, Claus (2003), "Turko-Mongolic Relations", in Janhunen, Juha (ed.), The Mongolic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 403-419
  2. Lyle Campbell and Mauricio J. Mixco (2007): A Glossary of Historical Linguistics; University of Utah Press. Page 7: "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related."
  3. R. M. W. Dixon (1997): The Rise and Fall of Languages. Cambridge University Press. Page 32: "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here."
  4. Kim, Y. J. (2000). Subject/object drop in the acquisition of Korean: A cross-linguistic comparison. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 9(4), 325-351.