Wikipedia:文章改善指引

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有啲維基百科嘅文章係非常詳盡但多數都只係楔位文章(stubs)而且慢慢好理想咁變成正文

本頁描術一篇文成形嘅幾階段,並指出你點樣可以發展篇文到下一階段。 Skipping stages is not only allowed—it's encouraged! The following categories should give you an idea of how articles typically grow on Wikipedia. Template:FAPath

文章嘅階段[編輯]

Uncreated articles[編輯]

每編文章都係由參與者心中一個念頭而開始。只要係百科嘅內容,你就可以寫你有興趣嘅嘢。如果你見到一個紅色連結觸動你嘅心,就寫佢啦!要知多些點樣構思你要寫嘅題目,請睇Wikipedia:Contributing to Wikipedia

喺開始之前,先睇下寫新文章嘅指引指導對你會好有幫助,你會對維基文章嘅範圍、格式、參考同NPOV這類嘢先有個概念。

以下係搵你要寫嘅文章嘅好方法:

楔位文章(Stubs)[編輯]

假如你冇時間寫一篇詳細嘅文章,咁你可以考慮下寫篇「楔位文章」。 楔位文章係好短嘅文字,通常得幾句。佢哋係維基百科中嘅「醜小鴨」,但係假以時日佢哋會成為天鵝。

搵同擴充楔位文章嘅好方法:

搞好文章[編輯]

當楔位文章有實質嘅內容時,佢就係一篇真正嘅文章。維基大部份嘅文章都係屬於這一類文章,佢哋可能會有缺點,維基鼓勵你去改好佢,如果你有有關嘅知識,請你擴充內容。

去搵同改善擴充文章嘅好方法:

點樣將好文提升到做正文嘅水準:

正文[編輯]

This star symbolizes the featured content on Wikipedia.

The featured articles are what we believe to be the best articles in Wikipedia. Before promotion to featured status, articles are reviewed at Wikipedia:Featured article candidates for compelling prose, accuracy, neutrality, and completeness, according to our featured article criteria. Wikipedians tend to be proud of featured articles to which they've contributed.

Once an article is certified as featured, it can usually be featured on the main page (provided, for example, it isn't about a subject that would offend a significant number of readers). Just be patient, and the article will eventually get its turn. Before the article is scheduled to appear on the main page, give it a last once-over, polishing it where possible.

Featured articles showcase our best work to people who might not know about Wikipedia. This is an excellent way to recruit new Wikipedians and gain donations, both of which help Wikipedia immensely.

Featured articles are well-polished, but there are almost always small improvements that can be made. Don't ever be afraid to correct mistakes or update information when you see an opportunity; few articles are perfect, even though perfection is always our goal. We have a formal procedure for encouraging Wikipedians to review and improve featured articles: Featured Article Review.

正文

點樣成為正文

Good ways to showcase our best articles:

點樣寫文章[編輯]

Suppose you want to create a first-rate, or even a perfect Wikipedia article that deserves to be listed among our featured articles (those considered by consensus to be Wikipedia's best articles). Your goal is then to meet the featured article criteria. Here's a guide to achieving this.

研究[編輯]

Once you have decided on a topic, use Wikipedia's search engine to find out what related material we already have. That way, you discover what already exists and can later create good links to and from other relevant articles.

Unless you are an acknowledged expert on the topic, additional research is necessary to write a great article. A great article has to be verifiable and cite reliable sources which ideally should include books or peer reviewed journal articles. Consider visiting a university or public library to identify and study the best sources. Consider searching Wikipedias in other languages, looking at what search engines such as Google can bring up, and reading the relevant articles from other encyclopaedias, to form an idea of what topics should be covered, in what depth, to achieve a comprehensive summary coverage. The following sites may help you: Encyclopedia.com (free), AllRefer Reference (free), Factmonster, Encyclopaedia Britannica School & Library Site (free in most libraries).

搵有關文章[編輯]

There are several ways to find and retrieve articles online, without having to leave home. Google Scholar [1] is an excellent source for finding sometimes free online peer reviewed articles; note that the free articles' entries are quickly identifiable for having a "View as HTML" link in the result page.

Many libraries have agreements with database providers under which library users with current library cards can connect for free to the databases from their home computers — that is, the users do not need to be physically present in the library. Check with your local public or academic library to find out which databases it subscribes to, and whether they have a mechanism in place for remote access. Some high-end databases (like InfoTrac and ProQuest) even carry scanned versions of articles as they were originally printed.

Examples of comprehensive general interest databases that may be available through your local library are:

  • EBSCO - Full academic version (Academic Search Premier) has full text of millions of articles from over 4,600 sources. Full public library version (MasterFILE Premier) has full text coverage of about 2,100 sources.
  • Infotrac - OneFile database has full text of about 50 million articles from 1980 to the present. Widely available at academic and public libraries throughout North America. Operated by Thomson Gale (formerly Gale Group), a subsidiary of the Thomson Corporation.
  • JSTOR - Has full text of articles from several hundred scholarly journals from their beginning to approximately five years ago. Operated by a consortium of universities. They include most of the "high prestige" journals in the humanities and social sciences.
  • LexisNexis - Full version (available only to lawyers and journalists) has millions of full-text articles (from magazines, journals, and newspapers), court opinions, statutes, treatises, transcripts, public records, and more. Academic version (available at many universities) offers large subsets of the legal and news databases.
  • ProQuest - Full version (ProQuest 5000) has full text of millions of articles from 7,400 sources as far back as 1971. The ProQuest Historical Newspapers database has images in PDF format of all issues of the New York Times published between 1851 and 2001. Most libraries offer access to only part of the huge ProQuest database, through account types like eLibrary, Platinum, Silver, Gold, or Discovery.
  • Questia Online Library allows full-text search and reading access to all 64,000+ books and 1,000,000+ journal, magazine, and newspaper articles in their collection. Their strength is full text of recent academic books by major publishers such as Oxford University Press, University of North Carolina Press, and Greenwood Press, along with thousands of older academic books that are available only in larger university libraries. Unlike most other online services they offer short-term individual subscriptions for students and researchers.

Academic libraries often subscribe to special interest databases with in-depth coverage, of which there are far too many to list here.

搵有關書籍[編輯]

If you are doing in-depth research on a complex or controversial subject, you should obtain relevant books in addition to articles. If the subject is of historical interest, you may have to visit a library to obtain articles that were published prior to 1980, since few online databases contain such old articles.

To find books or periodicals stored as bound volumes, the best place to start is with the catalog of your local public library. If you have searched the catalogs of several local libraries without success, try searching library "union" catalogs. With one search in a union catalog, it is possible to determine what books are available on a subject in an entire county, state, province, or country. The largest union catalog is OCLC WorldCat, which claims to have worldwide coverage, though most of its member libraries are in North America.

Only by citing the best sources in a field can a Wikipedia article be taken seriously by its critics. For more on this issue, see Wikipedia:Verifiability.

If you are creating a brand-new article (see m:Help:Starting a new page), there are a couple of naming conventions that you should follow.

編寫[編輯]

Start your article with a concise lead section or introduction defining the topic at hand and mentioning the most important points. The reader should be able to get a good overview by only reading the lead, which should be between one and four paragraphs long, depending on the length of the article. See Wikipedia:Lead section.

Remember that, although you will be familiar with the subject you are writing about, readers of Wikipedia may not be, so it is important to establish the context of your article's subject early on. For instance, if you are writing an article about a sports event you should mention the sport and, if relevant, any national details: rather than

The Red Cup was a domestic league competition that ran between 1994 and 1996

it would be more helpful to write

The Red Cup was a domestic rugby league competition in New Caledonia that ran between 1994 and 1996

again, rather than

Billy Fish is a goalkeeper who joined the club in 2006

say

Billy Fish is a goalkeeper who joined Fulchester United in 2006

Then start the article proper. See our editing help for the format we use to produce links, emphasize text, lists, headlines etc. Make sure to link to other relevant Wikipedia articles. Also, where appropriate, add links in other articles back to your article.

You cannot simply copy-and-paste from one of the external resources mentioned above. See Copyrights for the details.

It's often a good idea to separate the major sections of your articles with section headlines. For many topics, a history section is very appropriate, outlining how thinking about the concept evolved over time.

If different people have different opinions about your topic, characterize that debate from the Neutral point of view.

Try to get your spelling right. Wikipedia does not yet contain a spell checker, but you can write and spell-check your article first in a word processor or text editor (which is a lot more comfortable than the Wikipedia text-box anyway) and then paste it into said text-box. Another option is an extension (such as ieSpell for Internet Explorer or SpellBound for Mozilla and Firefox) that can be installed on your web browser and used as a spell checker in text boxes.

Keep the article in an encyclopaedic style: add etymology or provenance (when available), look for analogies and eventual comparisons to propose. Be objective: avoid personal comments (or turn them into general statements, but only when they coincide), don't use personal forms (I found that...). The Wikipedia Manual of Style can help you with your English. You can post questions about English grammar and usage at the Wikipedia language and grammar desk.

Try to avoid using euphemisms, such as "passed away" for "died", or "made love" for "had sex".

At the end, you should list the references you used and the best available external links about the topic. These references are what will allow Wikipedia to be the most trusted, reliable resource it can be.

畫龍點睛[編輯]

Finish the article with a good relevant image or graphic. See Graphics tutorials for practical help on drawing diagrams and modifying images. Many copyright-free image sources are listed at our public domain image resources. Please do not link to images on other servers; instead use the upload page.

One way to get a good article is to bounce it back and forth between several Wikipedians. Use the Talk pages to refine the topic, ask for their confirmations, note their doubts: it is usually interesting to discover that, perhaps from the other side of the planet, after a while, some other contributors can check other sources, or propose different interpretations. The composition of a commonly agreed interpretation is the most important ingredient of a serious Wikipedia article.

It may also be useful to look up your subject in one of the foreign-language Wikipedias, such as the German or French editions. While the English-language Wikipedia is the biggest one in terms of the total number of articles it contains, you may find that other Wikipedias sometimes contain more in-depth articles, especially if the subject is of local importance. Even if your foreign language skills are not particularly developed, you may still glean important information from those articles, like birth dates, statistics, bibliographies, or the names of persons that are linked on the page. If you have incorporated the additional information, please also make the appropriate Interwiki links at the end of your article.

Don't neglect the External links and References sections. The most useful and accurate material you've found with your Internet research might make good links for a reader too. And sometimes there is a standard work that is mentioned over and over in connection with your topic. Mention it, with its author and publication date. Even better, obtain a copy and use it to check the material in the article.

同儕評審[編輯]

You are encouraged to ask for feedback about the quality of an article at any time. Ask your fellow editors for their opinions, list outstanding issues and areas to improve on article talk pages, get other editors involved. Networking to identify like-minded Wikipedians is one of the most important (and enjoyable) aspects of the project. It's best to have a reasonably well-developed article before you do this, so that those giving feedback have something substantial to analyse. Wikipedia:Peer review is the normal route for evaluating articles.

See also[編輯]

Template:Writing guides