公民民族主義

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
 呢篇文講嘅唔係憲法愛國主義民族自由主義

公民民族主義, 又叫做民主民族主義或者自由民族主義,係民族主義嘅其中一種,通常同族裔民族主義相對。公民民族主義就係以自由主義嘅價值觀,包括政治自由寬容平等主義個人權利等等為基礎,而唔係以民族中心主義為基礎。[1][2] 呢個主義嘅支持者通常都表示,一個人嘅國家認同感係佢嘅身份認同嘅重要部分之一,令一個人能夠活出有意義同有自由嘅生命。[3] 同時,一個民主嘅政體需要一種共同嘅認同感嚟正常運作。[4]

根據 Donald Ipperciel,公民民族主義同族裔民族主義嘅最大分別就係,族裔民族主義係基於一個國家人口嘅膚色,令國家有集權主義或者專政制度嘅趨向,但係公民民族主義就係源於憲法民主主義嘅特色。[5] 喺20世紀期間,公民民族主義對於同盟國打倒納粹黨納粹主義,特別係入面嘅種族主義,都有唔少嘅幫助。[6] 當然,就好似土耳其政治學家 Umut Özkirimli 所指,一個以“公民”爲中心嘅國家,都唔包保一定唔會出現法西斯式嘅排擠外族嘅仇恨心。[7]

公民民族體就係基於一份共同國籍嘅政治認同,所以係以支持一個國家嘅政治體制同價值觀念爲本。喺一個咁樣嘅國家入面,國籍係開放俾各種族裔嘅人,無論佢嘅文化同種族背景係咩。[8] 例如,根據土耳其憲法第66章,一位土耳其嘅公民喺種族上唔一定要係土耳其人

理論上,一個公民民族嘅國家並唔渴望高舉某一種文化[8]。德國哲學家 Jürgen Habermas 亦都表示,一個住喺自由民主制嘅國家嘅新移民,並冇需要文化上同化,只需要接受國家嘅憲法同價值觀。呢個理論叫做“憲法愛國主義”。[8]

歷史[編輯]

公民民族主義由理性主義同埋自由主義而嚟,不過喺民族主義嘅框架内,通常同族裔民族主義相對。19世紀法國學家 Ernest Renan 被認爲係公民民族主義嘅先鋒之一[9]。美國哲學家 Hans Kohn 係其中第一個分別公民式同埋族裔式嘅民族主義,喺佢1944年出版嘅書 The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in Its Origins and Background 有提及到[10]。根據 Renan 嘅經典書籍 Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?,一個公民國家嘅參與應該係屬於自願性質,因爲一個國家係一種“每日嘅公投”,同埋係由人民對“一齊生活嘅意志”嚟維持個國家[11]

公民民族主義對代議民主嘅發展有唔少嘅影響,特別係喺18世紀嘅美國(1776年嘅美國獨立宣言)同埋法國(1789年嘅人權同公民權宣言)。[12]

批評[編輯]

以色列政治家 Yael Tamir 表示,公民民族主義同族裔民族主義之間嘅分別並唔分明,因爲西方國家有時候用呢個主義理論上嘅價值觀,嚟遮蓋國内實際上嘅唔平等同唔包容[13]

加拿大政治學家 Bernard Yack 亦都批評過公民同族裔民族主義之間嘅分別。佢拒絕 Renan 所論及嘅“自願性質”公民,反為覺得呢個講法“歪曲咁表達一個國家嘅政治現實”,因爲“一個國家嘅文化回憶喺事實上,係國家認同入面不可分離嘅一部分”[14]

土耳其政治學家 Umut Özkirimli 亦都同樣有批評過兩者之間嘅分別[15],並曾經引用過美國社會學家 Rogers Brubaker 嚟解釋佢嘅睇法:[16]

Since all nations lay claim to a unique place in history and to certain boundaries, all national identities are exclusionary. In that sense, all nations are ethnic nations [...] Brubaker elaborates on this, claiming that there are two different ways of mapping culture onto the ethnic-civic distinction. Ethnic nationalism may be interpreted narrowly, as involving an emphasis on descent. In this case, Brubaker argues, there is very little ethnic nationalism around, since on this view an emphasis on common culture has to be coded as a species of civic nationalism. If, however, ethnic nationalism is interpreted broadly, as ethnocultural, while civic nationalism is interpreted narrowly, as involving a cultural conception of citizenship, the problem is the opposite: 'civic nationalism gets defined out of existence, and virtually all nationalisms would be coded as ethnic or cultural'. Even the paradigmatic cases of civic nationalism, France and America, would cease to count as civic nationalism, since they have a crucial cultural component.

「因爲所有國家都有特定嘅歷史同地理位置,所以佢哋嘅國家認同都有某程度上嘅排外。喺呢個定義之下,所有國家都係族裔民族主義嘅國家... Brubaker 喺呢個議題上面細講,聲稱有兩個唔同分辨公民同族裔嘅民族主義嘅方法:族裔民族主義可以用一個狹窄嘅定義,只是以人民嘅血統嚟決定喺國家嘅地位。Brubaker 表示,喺呢個情況下,族裔民族主義基本上已經所剩無幾,因爲共同文化喺呢個定義,屬於公民民族主義嘅一部分。但係,如果族裔民族主義用一個比較寬濶嘅定義,凡係有族裔性質嘅文化都算喺内;而同時公民民族主義用一個狹窄嘅定義,以一個文化上對公民嘅概念為基礎,咁樣個情況就相反:公民民族主義基本上唔存在,而實際上所有民族主義都會以族裔或者文化為基礎。即使係最模範嘅例子,法國同美國,都唔會屬於公民民族主義國家,因爲佢哋嘅發展過程都有好重要嘅文化成分。」

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Auer, Stefan (2004). Liberal Nationalism in Central Europe. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 1134378602. 喺13 May 2017搵到.
  2. Tamir, Yael. 1993. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07893-9[未記頁數]; Will Kymlicka. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3[未記頁數]; David Miller. 1995. On Nationality. 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期1 June 2000. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5.
  3. Kymlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-827949-3. For criticism, see: Patten, Alan. 1999. "The Autonomy Argument for Liberal Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism. 5(1): 1-17.
  4. Miller, David. 1995. On Nationality. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-828047-5. For criticism, see: Abizadeh, Arash. 2002. "Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments." 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2016年8月7號,. American Political Science Review 96 (3): 495-509; Abizadeh, Arash. 2004. "Liberal Nationalist versus Postnational Social Integration 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2016年8月7號,.." Nations and Nationalism 10(3): 231-250.
  5. Ipperciel, Donald (2007). "Constitutional democracy and civic nationalism". Nations and Nationalism (英文). 13 (3): 395–416. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00293.x.
  6. Nancy Foner; Patric Simon (2015). Fear, Anxiety, and National Identity Immigration and Belonging in North America and Western Europe. Russell Sage Foundation. p. 38. ISBN 9781610448536.
  7. Özkırımlı, Umut. (2005). Contemporary Debates on Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp.27-28
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 ANNA STILZ. "Civic Nationalism and Language Policy". Philosophy & Public Affairs. 37 (3): 257.
  9. Ernest Renan. "What is a Nation?", 1882; cf. Chaim Gans, The Limits of Nationalism, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 11.
  10. Tamir, Yael (Yuli) (2019-05-11). "Not So Civic: Is There a Difference Between Ethnic and Civic Nationalism?". Annual Review of Political Science (英文). 22 (1): 419–434. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-022018-024059. ISSN 1094-2939.
  11. Renan, Ernest (March 11, 1882). "What Is A Nation" (PDF). UCParis. 喺November 29, 2022搵到.
  12. Michael Keating (1996). Nations Against the State The New Politics of Nationalism in Quebec, Catalonia and Scotland. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 9780230374348.
  13. Tamir, Yael (Yuli) (2019). "Not So Civic: Is There a Difference Between Ethnic and Civic Nationalism?". Annual Review of Political Science (英文). 22 (1): 419–434. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-022018-024059. ISSN 1094-2939.
  14. Yack, Bernard (1996). "The myth of the civic nation". Critical Review. 10 (2): 193–211. doi:10.1080/08913819608443417.
  15. Özkırımlı, Umut. (2005). Contemporary Debates on Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  16. Umut Özkırımlı, Contemporary Debates on Nationalism: A Critical Introduction, p. 24-25

來源[編輯]

  • Tournier-Sol, Karine (2015). "Reworking the Eurosceptic and Conservative Traditions into a Populist Narrative: UKIP's Winning Formula?". Journal of Common Market Studies. 53 (1): 140–56. doi:10.1111/jcms.12208. S2CID 142738345.

出面網頁[編輯]