顳葉

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顳葉
Temporal lobe animation.gif
一個人類左腦嘅立體想像圖;
紅色嗰笪係顳葉。
生理
屬於 cerebral hemisphere[*]
識別碼
UBERON ID 0001871
TA A14.1.09.136

顳葉粵拼:nip6 jip6英文temporal lobe)係哺乳類動物嘅四大腦葉其中一塊,位於大腦皮層最外側近耳仔嗰忽,負責將感官輸入處理成呢啲輸入應該代表嘅意義,便於語言上嘅理解等嘅過程,而且仲喺視覺訊息嘅處理上扮演咗一定嘅角色[1]

功能[編輯]

有色嗰笪就係聽覺皮層。
布諾卡區同韋力克區嘅位置

長期記憶[編輯]

研究指,內側顳葉(medial temporal lobe)對於長期記憶(指一啲儲起碼幾日嘅記憶)嘅產生嚟講不可或缺。內側顳葉會同海馬體(hippocampus)以及其他同記憶相關嘅腦區互相交換訊息,並且將呢啲唔同訊息結合埋一齊,產生一個個完整嘅長期記憶[2][3]。研究發現,內側顳葉病變會搞到個病人冇辦法產生新嘅長期記憶,而短期記憶同埋舊有嘅長期記憶就通常唔會點受影響,但係亦都有一啲研究報告話內側顳葉受損搞到個病人記唔到同其他人相關嘅記憶[4]

聽覺處理[編輯]

神經科學研究表明,顳葉上側、後側、同外側等多個部份都參與高層嘅聽覺訊息嘅處理[5]耳仔會將收到外界訊息傳送到去顳葉嘅主要聽覺皮層(primary auditory cortex)嗰度,主要聽覺皮層會係噉咦處理吓啲訊息,並且初步噉將啲訊息詮釋同歸類(例如聽到某啲聲之後初步噉斷定啲聲係語言定係第啲類型嘅聲)[6],然後塊主要聽覺皮層就會將唔同類嘅聽覺訊息傳去唔同嘅次要聽覺皮層(secondary auditory cortex)嗰度-呢啲次要聽覺皮層係一啲專化咗、淨係處理某啲特定聽覺訊息嘅腦區,例如布諾卡區(Broca's area)就係位於顳葉上少少嘅一個腦區,專門處理語言相關嘅訊息(研究顯示,布諾卡區病變會搞到個病人明明聽覺同聲帶冇問題,都講唔到嘢)[7]

語言處理[編輯]

主要聽覺皮層會向兩個重要嘅語言腦區傳訊號:頭先提咗嘅布諾卡區同埋韋力克區(Wernicke's area),前者主要掌管個人對語言嘅使用,喺講嘢當中不可或缺,而後者就主要掌管聲同意思之間嘅連繫-語言大致上就係聲同意思之間嘅連繫,而呢個連繫似乎由韋力克區主管,研究顯示,韋力克區病變會搞到個病人出現所謂嘅感覺性失語症(fluent aphasia),即係話個病人能夠發出準確嘅聲,但講嘅嘢冇乜意思,例如個病人想講話佢去放,但講出嚟嘅嘢係「我知隻狗有啲唔舒服所以我想佢去行吓,我想好似你講嘅噉照顧吓佢」(一句有少少九唔答八嘅句子)。呢啲腦區一齊組成咗個腦嘅語言處理系統[8][9]

臨床研究[編輯]

神經科學家好興研究病變:睇吓腦部唔同地方受損嘅病人喺行為同認知上有乜嘢缺失,再憑呢啲觀察推測受損咗嗰啲腦區所做嘅係乜嘢功能。根據呢啲研究,顳葉病變可以有以下呢啲症狀(亦都要視乎受損嘅係顳葉嘅邊一忽)[10]

如果受損嘅係左右腦顳葉是但一邊嘅話
  • 另一邊身體會出現象限盲(quadrantanopia;喪失部份視野嘅視力);
  • 幻覺
如果受損嘅係左右腦顳葉當中比較強嗰一方嘅話
如果受損嘅係左右腦顳葉當中冇噉強嗰一方嘅話
  • 非語言記憶受損;
  • 音樂能力受損。
如果左右腦顳葉兩邊都受損嘅話
如果特定顳葉區域受損:
  • 內側顳葉(medial temporal lobe)受損會搞到病人喺回想視覺刺激嗰陣有困難[11]
  • 下側顳葉(inferior temporal lobe)受損通常會搞到個病人出現視覺失認(visual agnosia),即係認唔到一啲熟悉嘅物件,又或者出現面懵病(prosopagnosia),即係認唔到人樣[12]
  • 左前側顳葉(anterior left temporal lobe)受損可以引致學者症候群(savant syndrome),即係喺某一方面嘅技能變到好勁,但係失去正常功能[13]
  • 前側顳葉(frontotemporal lobe)萎縮會引致皮克病(Pick's disease),呢個病嘅症狀包括咗心情上嘅改變、注意力失調、同埋攻擊性嘅行為等等,而且仲會搞到個病人語言能力各方面同運動功能受損[14][15]
  • 重複嘅顳葉發羊吊會引致各種感官嘅幻覺,以及係喪失處理記憶嘅能力[16]
  • 精神分裂(schizophrenia)係一種嚴重嘅精神科疾病。其中一個病徵係聽覺上嘅幻覺,聽到一啲唔存在嘅聲。研究認為,呢種幻覺嘅起因係源於左腦顳葉出咗問題,尤其係主要聽覺皮層[17]。主要聽覺皮層嘅灰質(gray matter)減少同埋第啲細胞上嘅異常會引致佢裏面出現一啲自發性出現嘅神經活動,令到塊主要聽覺皮層以為自己真係收到聽覺訊號,搞到個病人跟住以為自己真係聽到聲[17][18]

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Smith; Kosslyn (2007). Cognitive Psychology: Mind and Brain. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 21, 194–199, 349.
  2. Squire, L. R., & Zola-Morgan, S. (1991). The medial temporal lobe memory system. Science, 253(5026), 1380-1386.
  3. Scoville, W. B., & Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 20(1), 11.
  4. ELLIS, A. W., YOUNG, A. W., & CRITCHLEY, E. M. (1989). Loss of memory for people following temporal lobe damage. Brain, 112(6), 1469-1483.
  5. Zwislocki, J. (1960). Theory of temporal auditory summation. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 32(8), 1046-1060.
  6. Recanzone, G. A., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. (1993). Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 13(1), 87-103.
  7. Alexander, M. P., Naeser, M. A., & Palumbo, C. (1990). Broca's area aphasias: aphasia after lesions including the frontal operculum. Neurology, 40(2), 353-353.
  8. What is Aphasia? 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2019年4月16號,..
  9. Hickok, Gregory; Poeppel, David (May 2007). "The Cortical Organization of Speech Processing". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 8 (5): 393–402.
  10. Harrington, D. L., & Haaland, K. Y. (1999). Neural underpinnings of temporal processing: Α review of focal lesion, pharmacological, and functional imaging research. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 10(2), 91-116.
  11. Pertzov, Y., Miller, T. D., Gorgoraptis, N., Caine, D., Schott, J. M., Butler, C., & Husain, M. (2013). Binding deficits in memory following medial temporal lobe damage in patients with voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody-associated limbic encephalitis. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 136(8), 2474-2485.
  12. Mizuno, T., & Takeda, K. (2009). [The symptomatology of frontal and temporal lobe damages]. Brain And Nerve = Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo, 61(11), 1209-1218.
  13. Treffert, D. A. (2009). "The savant syndrome: An extraordinary condition. A synopsis: Past, present, future". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 364 (1522): 1351–7.
  14. Takeda, N.; Kishimoto, Y.; Yokota, O. (2012). "Pick's disease". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 724: 300–316.
  15. Yokota, O.; Tsuchiya, K.; Arai, T.; Yagishita, S.; Matsubara, O.; Mochizuki, A.; Akiyama, H. (2009). "Clinicopathological characterization of Pick's disease versus frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin/TDP-43-positive inclusions". Acta Neuropathologica. 117 (4): 429–444.
  16. Lah, S., & Smith, M. (2013). Semantic and Episodic Memory in Children With Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Do They Relate to Literacy Skills?. Neuropsychology. doi:10.1037/neu0000029
  17. 17.0 17.1 Hugdahl K, Løberg E-M, Nygård M. Left Temporal Lobe Structural and Functional Abnormality Underlying Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2009; 3(1): 34-45.
  18. Ikuta T, DeRosse P, Argyelan M, et al. Subcortical Modulation in Auditory Processing and Auditory Hallucinations. Behavioural brain research. 2015; 295: 78-81.

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