鍬甲蟲

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鍬甲蟲
一隻典型嘅鍬甲蟲公
一隻典型嘅鍬甲蟲公
物種分類
動物界 Animalia
節肢動物門 Arthropoda
昆蟲綱 Insecta
甲蟲目 Coleoptera
金甲蟲科 Scarabaeidae
亞科 (Subfamilia): 鍬甲蟲亞科 Lucanidae

鍬甲蟲粵拼cau1 gaap3 cung4英文stag beetle學名Lucanidae)係金甲蟲嘅一種,地球上大約有 1,200 個唔同嘅品種。同其他甲蟲一樣,鍬甲蟲身體由硬淨嘅外骨骼包住,身體分做、同埋三橛,多數品種身長大約係 5 厘米左右噉長,但有啲品種可以大到超過 12 厘米。喺外形上,鍬甲蟲最獨特嘅嘢係,多數品種嘅鍬甲蟲啲嘅頭前方有一對好大、打橫嘅弶,而啲公會用佢哋嘅弶互相角力,爭奪啲嘅芳心,好似啲鹿公噉-所以佢哋喺英文入面個名係「雄鹿甲蟲」[1][2][3]

鍬甲蟲相對乾淨、易打理、又對人類冇害,所以以昆蟲嚟講好易養,有唔少人會養嚟做寵物,尤其係喺日本最常見有人養鍬甲蟲做寵物[4]

生物學研究[編輯]

身體結構[編輯]

鍬甲蟲係一種大型嘅甲蟲,多數品種都係大約係 5 厘米左右噉長。同一般甲蟲一樣,佢哋嘅身體受到硬淨嘅甲保護,背脊有兩對,一對厚嘅翼加一對好似薄膜噉嘅翼,令到鍬甲蟲曉飛。鍬甲蟲公通常大隻過乸少少,公嘅頭前方會有一對好大、打橫嘅弶,乸冇弶,而且下顎細小啲,但下顎嘅力勁過啲公[3]

鍬甲蟲最大嘅特徵係啲公嘅弶:喺交配季節嗰陣,啲鍬甲蟲公會用佢哋嘅弶嚟玩打交,嘗試用力量制服對手(但好少可會嘗試攞對手命),打交贏咗嘅公就會得到同啲乸交配嘅權利。除咗噉,鍬甲蟲有陣時都會為咗爭嘢食而打交,或者用佢哋嘅弶嚟對獵食者嘅侵襲作出反擊[5]

生命歷程[編輯]

鍬甲蟲係一種完全變態昆蟲:由卵嗰度生咗出嚟之後係一條幼蟲,鍬甲蟲幼蟲多數以腐爛嘅木頭為食糧,一路食一路生到愈嚟愈大條,會經過三個階段,最後生到噉上下就會用身體周圍嘅木碎同泥土結蛹,而喺最後幼蟲階段,某啲品種(例子有長齒黑鍬甲Prosopocoilus giraffa)嘅幼蟲可以好似人類手指噉大隻;蛹過咗一段時間就會變成成蟲;鍬甲蟲嘅成蟲主要喺 4 月到 7 月期間最活躍,多數食樹汁同腐爛嘅生果維生,而啲大咗肚等產卵嘅乸有可能會食肉(包括昆蟲嘅屍體或者朽木入面其他昆蟲嘅幼蟲);喺交配季節,成年嘅鍬甲蟲公會用弶打交,嚟爭取同乸交配嘅權利,交配咗之後,啲鍬甲蟲乸就會搵安全隱蔽嘅地方產卵

同一個品種嘅鍬甲蟲公喺弶嘅大細同形狀上可以有差異,所以有啲公會好打啲,比較有機會同啲乸交配。

分類學[編輯]

公(左)同乸(右)嘅鍬甲蟲
公嘅歐洲深山鍬形蟲
Lucanus cervus
乸嘅歐洲深山鍬形蟲
Lucanus cervus

參考[編輯]

  • Krajcik, M. 2001. Lucanidae of the World. Catalogue Part. I, Checklist of Stag beetles of the World. Published by the author, Most, Czech Republic. 108 pp.
  • Krajcik, M. 2003. Lucanidae of the World. Catalogue Part. II, Encyclopaedia of the Lucanidae. Published by the author, Most, Czech Republic. 206 pp.
  • 小林準治; 手塚治虫. 朱耀沂(翻譯), 編. 《手塚治虫 昆蟲圖鑑》. 玉山社. 2004-01-03 [2004]. ISBN 986-781-944-6.(中文).(繁體中文)
  • 平山修次郎. 《原色甲蟲圖譜》. 三省堂. 1940: 244頁.(日文)

睇埋[編輯]

[編輯]

  1. Smith, A.B.T. (2006). A review of the family-group names for the superfamily Scarabaeoidea (Coleoptera) with corrections to nomenclature and a current classification. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 60:144–204.
  2. Harvey, D. J., Gange, A. C., Hawes, C. J., & Rink, M. (2011). Bionomics and distribution of the stag beetle, Lucanus cervus (L.) across Europe. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 4(1), 23-38.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kawano, K. (2000). Genera and allometry in the stag beetle family Lucanidae, Coleoptera. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93(2), 198-207.
  4. Lombardi, Linda (26 May 2014). "How to Care for Your Beetle". tofugu.com.
  5. "How to help stag beetles" (PDF). wildlondon.org.uk. London Wildlife Trust.

[編輯]

  • Flickr Images.
  • Stag beetle info Research site containing lots of information on the stag beetle as well as information on current conservation schemes.
  • Asahinet Stag beetles on postage stamps and species illustrations.
  • Lucanes du Monde Image rich French blog.
  • TOL.
  • UNL Generic Guide to New World Scarabs- Lucanidae.
  • UK Stag Beetle School Project A UK school project about Stag Beetles (collecting data on populations).