性格

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
(由人格跳轉過嚟)
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

喺嚴格嘅心理學上,性格粵拼sing3 gaak3英文personality)-粵文入面又有叫個性或者人格-係指一個個體特有(即係同第啲個體唔同)嘅行為情緒或者認知特性:想像一個人,佢可以想像成一個會由刺激俾反應嘅系統,而人係有個體差異嘅生物物種;就算接收嘅刺激完全一樣,唔同人都可能會有唔同反應[1][2],例如外向度高嘅人一般喺見到新朋友(刺激)嗰陣,比較有可能會作出「主動行埋去結識」嘅反應,而外向度低嘅人喺同一個情況下會「主動行埋去結識」嘅機會就比較低[3]

性格心理學(personality psychology)係專門研究性格嘅心理學子領域,會思考以下嘅問題:

  • 描述性:人與人之間可以喺邊啲行為情緒認知特性上有個體差異?原則上,人可以喺無數咁多嘅行為情緒認知特性上有個體差異,不過呢啲可以有個體差異嘅特性有部份會對一個人嘅行為比較有影響力,例如係五大性格特質(Big Five personality traits)就描述包括外向度在內嘅五個性格因素,主張呢五個因素雖然唔係唯一能夠有個體差異嘅行為情緒認知特性,但就零舍會影響到一個人嘅運作[4]
  • 實用性:要點樣量度人嘅性格?性格心理學家會嘗試用各種心理測量學(psychometrics)方法,嘗試建立出一啲可以攞嚟喺應用上量度性格嘅架生,簡單嘅例子有用心理測量學方法造出能夠量度外向度嘅問卷,而研究又指,外向度喺某啲情況下能夠預測一個員工嘅工作表現,噉呢個問卷就會喺管理學上有用[5]
  • 理論性:性格呢家嘢可以點樣用心理學理論思考?好似係強化敏感度理論(RST)噉,就運用咗強化懲罰呢兩個基礎嘅心理學概念(詳情可以睇埋行為論),指出性格好大程度上可以想像成對強化以及對懲罰嘅敏感度嘅個體差異,例如一個人嘅膽量可以想像成佢對懲罰(會令人嘅刺激)有幾敏感[6]

... 等等。

重要性格理論[編輯]

... 等等。

睇埋[編輯]

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Cooper, C. (2019). Pitfalls of personality theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 151, 109551.
  • Eysenck, S. B., Barrett, P. T., & Saklofske, D. H. (2020). The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (PDF). Personality and Individual Differences, 109974.
  • Kwon, Paul (August 1999). "Attributional Style and Psychodynamic Defense Mechanisms: Toward an Integrative Model of Depression". Journal of Personality. 67 (4): 645–658. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00068.
  • Prunas, Antonio; Di Pierro, Rossella; Huemer, Julia; Tagini, Angela (January 2019). "Defense mechanisms, remembered parental caregiving, and adult attachment style". Psychoanalytic Psychology. 36 (1): 64–72. doi:10.1037/pap0000158.

[編輯]

  1. Corr, Philip J.; Matthews, Gerald (2009). The Cambridge handbook of personality psychology (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of personality: Theory and research. Guilford Press.
  3. Eysenck, H. J. (Ed.). (2012). A model for personality. Springer Science & Business Media.
  4. Komarraju, M., Karau, S. J., Schmeck, R. R., & Avdic, A. (2011). The Big Five personality traits, learning styles, and academic achievement. Personality and individual differences, 51(4), 472-477.
  5. Blickle, G., Meurs, J. A., Wihler, A., Ewen, C., Merkl, R., & Missfeld, T. (2015). Extraversion and job performance: How context relevance and bandwidth specificity create a non-linear, positive, and asymptotic relationship. Journal of vocational behavior, 87, 80-88.
  6. Corr, Phillip J. (2004). "Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Personality". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 28 (3): 317–332.

[編輯]