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木星

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
木星 ♃
木星外觀
木星外觀
編號
發音/ˈpɪtər/[1]
軌道參數[5][a]
曆元 J2000
遠日點5.458104 AU (816520800 km)
近日點4.950429 AU (740573600 km)
半長軸5.204267 AU (778547200 km)
離心率0.048775
軌道週期
  • 11.8618 yr
  • 4332.59 日
  • 10475.8 木星太陽日[2]
會合週期398.88 日[3]
平均速度13.07 公里/秒[3]
平近點角18.818°
軌道傾角
升交點黃經100.492°
近日點參數275.066°
衛星95 (截至2023年 (2023-唔見咗必要嘅參數 1=月份))
物理特徵
平均半徑69911±6 km[6][b]
赤道半徑
半徑
  • 66854±10 km[6][b]
  • 10.517 Earths
扁率0.06487±0.00015
表面積
  • 6.1419×1010 km2[b][7]
  • 121.9 Earths
體積
  • 1.4313×1015 km3[3][b]
  • 1321.3 Earths
質量
  • 1.8986×1027 kg[3]
  • 317.8 Earths
  • 1/1047 Sun[8]
平均密度1.326 g/cm3[3][b]
表面重力24.79 m/s2[3][b]
2.528 g
逃逸速度59.5 km/s[3][b]
恒星自轉週期9.925 h[9] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
赤道自轉速度12.6 km/s
45300 km/h
轉軸傾角3.13°[3]
北極赤經268.057°
17 52 14[6]
北極赤緯64.496°[6]
反照率0.343 (Bond)
0.52 (geom.)[3]
表面溫度 最低 平均 最高
1 bar level 165 K(−108.15°C)[3]
0.1 bar 112 K[3]
視星等−1.6−2.94[3]
角直徑29.8″到50.1″[3]
大氣[3]
表面氣壓20–200 kPa[10] (cloud layer)
大氣標高27 km
成分by volume:
89.8±2.0% (H2
10.2±2.0% (He)
≈ 0.3% 甲烷(CH4
≈ 0.026% (NH3
≈ 0.003% 氘化氫 (HD)
0.0006% 乙烷(C2H6
0.0004% 水(H2O)

木星,又叫歲星,係太陽系八大行星入面最大嘅行星,係由內數到外第五粒行星[11]。木星屬於氣體大行星,同土星天王星海王星一樣,木星繞太陽運行,平均距離太陽5.2 AU,軌道週期11.86年[2]。木星係地球夜晚睇到嘅第三光嘅天體,只係暗過月球金星[12][13]

古時中國叫佢做「歲星」[14],因為佢公轉大約12年,同地支一個循環差唔多,並產生咗歲星紀年法:歲星出沒嘅時候,古時人望住個天睇佢嘅位置,並用佢來紀年。西方叫佢做朱庇特(Jupiter)[15],源自羅馬神話入面嘅眾神之王,等同希臘神話宙斯

木星嘅質量係地球嘅318倍,亦係太陽系所有其他行星加埋嘅2.5倍[16],但就只係太陽嘅千分之一,佢亦係太陽系第二多衛星嘅行星(已知有95粒[17]),同埋自轉最快嘅行星(9.925個鐘[9])。

木星有光環,不過就唔容易睇到,喺地上需要現存最大嘅望遠鏡先至可以進行對木星環嘅觀察[18]。木星表面有大大小小嘅風暴,其中最出名嘅風暴係「大紅斑[19]

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喺希臘同羅馬文明入面,木星畀命名做佢哋嘅主神 ZeusJupiter[20]國際天文學聯會喺1976年正式以 Jupiter 命名呢粒行星,並以神嘅愛人、最愛同後裔命名木星嘅衛星[21]

形成同遷徙

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木星畀人認為係太陽系最老嘅行星[22],呢粒行星最初係一個固體核心,然後積累咗佢嘅氣態大氣層,所以木星係喺太陽星雲消散之前形成嘅[23]。形成嘅過程入面,木星嘅質量一路增加到地球質量嘅20倍[22],而大約一半由矽酸鹽同其他重元素成份組成。呢粒不斷增長嘅行星喺3至4百萬年到咗最終質量[22]

根據「大遷徙假說中文大遷徙假說」,木星喺離太陽大約3.5AU嘅地方開始形成。隨著木星質量增加,同圍繞太陽運行嘅氣盤相互作用以及同土星軌道共振導致佢向內遷移[24][25],之後土星都向內遷移,並且快過木星,直到兩粒行星喺離太陽1.5AU嘅地方被捕獲為3:2平均運動共振[26],之後兩粒行星開始向外移並去到而家嘅位置[27]。木星喺內太陽系嘅遷移最終令內行星從廢墟形成[28]

物理性質

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木星係氣體大行星,主要由氣體液體組成。佢係太陽系最大嘅行星,赤道直徑係142,984 公里,體積係地球嘅1321倍[3][29],平均密度係1.326 g/cm3,低過太陽系所有類地行星[30][31]

成分

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跟質量來計嘅話木星嘅大氣大約由76% 同24% 組成,但氦原子質量大過氫分子,所以跟體積計嘅話,木星嘅高層大氣大約由90% 氫同10% 氦組成[32]。大氣入面仲有微量甲烷水蒸氣化合物,以及少量乙烷硫化氫磷化氫[33]。大氣最外層有凍結嘅氨晶體[34]。通過紅外線紫外線測量,仲發現咗微量同其他碳氫化合物[35]。木星內部含有密度更大嘅物質,跟質量計嘅話,大約有 71% 嘅氫、24% 嘅氦和 5% 其他元素[36][37]

大氣入面氫同氦嘅比例接近原始太陽星雲嘅理論成分[38]。高層大氣嘅氖含量得百萬分之二十,大約係太陽入面嘅十分之一[39]。木星嘅氦豐富度大慨係太陽嘅 80%,因為呢啲元素以富氦液滴嘅形式沉澱,並喺木星內部深處發生[40][41]

根據光譜學,土星嘅成分被認為同木星相似,但係天王星海王星嘅氫同氦含量相對較少,而喺木星同土星較少嘅元素就相對較多,包括氧、碳、氮同硫[42]。呢啲行星叫冰巨行星,因為佢哋大部分揮發性化合物都係固體[43]

質量同大細

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see caption
木星同木衛二(左)。地球嘅直徑細過木星11倍,大過木衛二4倍。

木星嘅質量係地球 318 倍[3],係太陽系其他行星質量總和嘅 2.5 倍。佢嘅質量之大令佢嘅太陽重心喺太陽表面上方,離太陽中心 1.068 個太陽半徑[44] [45]:6。木星嘅半徑大約係太陽半徑嘅十分之一[46],質量係太陽質量嘅千分之一,因為兩個天體密度相似[47]。「木星質量」(MJ/MJup)通常用來描述其他天體質量嘅單位,特別係系外行星棕矮星。例如,HD 209458 b嘅質量係0.69 MJ,而棕矮星Gliese 229 b嘅質量係60.4 MJ[48][49]

理論模型話如果木星的質量增加 40% 以上,內部就會被壓縮,即使物質數量增加,體積都會減小。但質量變化較細嘅話,半徑唔會明顯變化[50]。因此,木星被認為有同行星組成同進化歷史去到嘅的直徑噉大嘅直徑[51]。如果隨住質量增加而進一步收縮嘅過程持續落去嘅話,恆星就會形成[52]。即使木星嘅質量要大約 75 倍先可以融合氫並成為恆星[53],佢嘅直徑可能已經夠大,因為最細嘅紅矮星嘅半徑可能只係大過土星小小[54]

形成嗰陣,木星溫度高過而家,直徑大約係當前直徑嘅兩倍[55]。之後,木星輻射嘅熱量比通過太陽輻射接收嘅熱量多[56]:30[57]。噉令克赫歷程中文克赫歷程發生,並收縮內部,導致木星每年收縮大約 1 毫米[58][59]

內部結構

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木星內部、表面特徵、環同內衛星

科學家針對木星形成有兩種理論:如果行星首先以固體形式吸積,佢會由密度高嘅核心同向外延伸到行星半徑大約 80% 嘅液態金屬氫同一啲氦嘅周圍層組成[60],而外部大氣層就會由分子氫組成[59]。或者,如果行星直接由氣態原行星盤塌陷,噉佢應該冇核心,而係由密度從外圍到中心一路越來越高嘅流體(主要由分子同金屬氫)組成。朱諾號嘅數據顯示,木星有一個混合到地幔入面嘅彌散核心,延伸到木星半徑嘅30-50%,而且包含總質量有地球 7-25 倍嘅重元素[61][62][63][64][65]

喺金屬氫層出面係透明嘅內部氫大氣層,壓力同溫度高過分子氫嘅臨界壓力 1.3 MPa 同臨界溫度 33 K(−240.2 °C[66]。喺噉嘅狀態下,冇明顯液相同氣相,所以氫被認為喺超臨界流體狀態。從雲層向下延伸嘅氫氣同氦氣喺更深嘅一層轉變咗做液體,可能同液態氫同其他超臨界流體嘅海洋類似[56]:22[67][68][69]。隨著深度增加,氣體逐漸變得更加熱同稠密[70][71]

氦同嘅雨狀液滴通過低層大氣向下沉澱,消耗咗高層大氣入面呢啲元素嘅豐富度[40][72]。計算表明,氦滴喺半徑60,000 公里處同金屬氫分離,並喺半徑50,000 公里處再次合併[73]。天降鑽石被認為會發生,包括土星[74]同冰巨行星天王星同海王星[75]

木星內部嘅溫度同壓力向內穩定增加,因為行星形成嘅熱量只能夠通過對流逃逸[41]。喺大氣壓力水平 1 bar (0.10 MPa)嘅表面深度,溫度大約喺 165 K (−108°C)。超臨界氫逐漸由分子流體轉變做金屬流體的區域嘅壓力範圍分別係 50–400 GPa,溫度分別為 5,000–8,400 K(4,730–8,130 °C)。木星稀釋核心嘅溫度估計係喺 19,700 °C(20,000 K),壓力大約係喺 4,000 GPa [76]

大氣層

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木星雲系統喺一個月內移動嘅縮時攝影航行者1號飛越期間拍攝)

木星嘅大氣層係太陽系行星入面最大嘅,跨越超過5,000 km 嘅高度[77][78]。木星嘅大氣層會延伸到雲層以下 3,000 km 嘅地方[76]

雲層

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木星永遠畀晶體雲籠罩,可能仲有硫氫化銨[79]。雲喺大氣層嘅對流層頂,並喺不同緯度形成帶,叫做熱帶區域。呢啲區域分淺同深,並且相互作用導致風暴同湍流出現。喺緯向急流成日有每秒 100 米(360 km/h)嘅風速出現[80]。據觀察,呢啲區域嘅闊度、顏色同強度每年有變化,但佢哋仍然夠穩定到畀科學家命名[45]:6

雲層大約有 50 公里深,由至少兩層氨雲組成,頂部薄啲同清啲,下層就厚啲。喺木星大氣入面檢測到嘅閃電表明,氨雲下面可能有一層薄水雲[81]。呢啲放電嘅威力可能係地球閃電嘅一千倍[82]。水雲假定會由內部上升嘅熱量驅動,同地球雷暴一樣噉產生雷暴[83]朱諾號任務揭示咗淺層閃電存在,淺層閃電係源自大氣中相對較高嘅氨水雲[84]。呢啲排放物帶住被冰冚住嘅水氨泥漿「蘑菇團」,並落入大氣深處[85]。喺木星嘅高層大氣入面觀察到高層大氣閃電,仲有持續大約 1.4 毫秒嘅明亮閃光。呢啲因為而呈現藍色粉紅色嘅嘢被叫做“elves”或“sprites”[86][87]

木星雲層嘅橙色同棕色係因為由內部上升嘅化合物暴露喺來自太陽嘅紫外線,並改變顏色。確切嘅組成仍然唔清楚,但呢啲物質被認為係由或可能係由組成[56]:39[88]。呢啲化合物叫做發色團,佢哋同下層溫暖嘅雲層混合。當上升對流胞形成結晶氨嗰陣,會形成淺色嘅區域,並遮住咗髮色團[89]

木星有低轉軸傾角,令兩極收到嘅太陽輻射比木星嘅赤道區域少。行星內部對流,將能量輸送到兩極,平衡雲層嘅溫度[45]:54

大紅斑同其他氣旋

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大紅斑

木星有個出名特徵,叫大紅斑[19],佢係一個喺赤道以南 22° 嘅持續性反氣旋風暴。佢喺1831年就確定存在[90],甚至喺 1665 年就有記載[91][92]哈勃太空望遠鏡影嘅相顯示大紅斑附近仲有兩個「紅斑」[93][94]。通過口徑 12 cm以上嘅地球望遠鏡可以睇到大紅斑[95]。風暴以逆時針旋轉,週期大約六日[96]。個風暴最高大約高過雲頂 8 公里[97]。一啲模型表明風暴可能穩定,並可能永久喺恆星上面[98]

大紅斑大過地球[99],但自被發現以來,佢嘅尺寸越來越細,喺1800年代末長41,000公里,去到2015年得番大約16,500公里[100],而且每年減少930公里[99][101]

朱諾號顯示木星兩極有多個極地氣旋群,北極有9個,由八個細嘅圍住一個大嘅,而南極就由五個大風暴同一個細風暴圍住中間嘅風暴,加埋有7個風暴[102][103]

2000年,木星南半球出現咗個細個大紅斑嘅大氣特徵,由三個細啲嘅白色風暴組合而成,之後,佢由白色變做紅色,並被叫做「小紅斑」[104][105]

2017年,喺木星北極熱層發現咗「大凍斑」,直徑24,000 公里,闊12,000公里,溫度比周圍低200°C。「大凍斑」嘅形式同強度會有短期變化,但位置喺15年來冇變[106]

磁層

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木星嘅磁場係太陽系行星入面最強嘅[89]偶極矩係 4.170 高斯(0.4170 mT),同自轉極傾斜 10.31° 。表面磁場強度由 2 高斯(0.20 mT)到 20 高斯(2.0 mT)都有[107]。磁場被認為係由液態金屬氫核心嘅渦流產生嘅。木星磁層周圍係個磁層頂,喺磁鞘內邊。太陽風同呢啲區域相互作用,拉長木星背風面嘅磁層並向外延伸,差唔多去到土星軌道。伽利略衛星都喺磁層入面行,令佢哋唔使受暴露喺太陽風。[56]:69

木衛一嘅火山噴出大量二氧化硫,沿住軌道形成氣體環面,嗰啲氣體喺木星磁層入面被電離,產生硫離子同氧離子。之後佢哋同來自木星大氣層嘅氫離子喺木星赤道面形成等離子片。薄片嘅等離子體同行星共同旋轉,造成變形偶極磁場。等離子片中文等離子片內的電子會產生範圍喺 0.6–30 MHz 嘅無線電信號,用普通短波無線電接收器都可以喺地球檢測到[108][109]。而木衛一穿過呢個環面嗰陣,相互作用產生咗阿爾芬波,將電離物質帶去木星兩極。之後,無線電波通過迴旋加速器中文迴旋加速器邁射機制中文天文物理邁射同能量沿住錐形表面傳輸出去。當地球同個錐體相交嗰陣,木星嘅無線電輸出可能多過太陽嘅無線電輸出[110]

行星環

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内文:木星環
木星嘅環

木星嘅行星環系統微弱,由顆粒組成嘅內環,比較光嘅主環同外圍嘅薄紗環組成[111],呢啲環大慨由塵埃組成,同土星環組成唔同[56]:65。主環可能係由木衛十五木衛十六噴出嘅物質組成,呢啲物質受木星引力吸引,軌道繞住木星,後來新的材料被碰撞影響而形成而家嘅環[112]木衛十四木衛五可能以相同方式組成薄紗環嘅兩個唔同組成部分[112]。來自木衛五附近嘅碎片可能係來自同木衛五碰撞嘅碎片[113]

軌道和自轉

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木星同其他外太陽系行星嘅軌道

木星係太陽系唯一一個同太陽重心喺太陽本體之外,但都只喺太陽半徑以外7%[114][115]。木星同太陽嘅平均距離係7.78億公里,即係5.2個天文單位,每11.86年公轉一周,大約係土星嘅五分之二,形成近軌道共振[116]。木星嘅軌道平面比地球斜1.30°。因為佢有0.049嘅離心率,木星嘅遠日點近日點遠大約7500萬公里[3]。系外行星嘅發現證實咗有高偏心率嘅類木行星,同木星嘅低偏心率唔一樣。模型表明噉係因為太陽系只有兩粒類木行星,而有更多嘅話可能會提高偏心率[117]

木星嘅軸傾角得3.13,同地球或者火星比,佢嘅季節微不足道[118]

木星嘅自轉係太陽系入面最快,可以喺十個鐘之內完成自轉,噉會產生一個明顯嘅赤道隆起。因為木星唔係固體,所以佢嘅上層大氣會有差異自轉中文差異自轉。木星極地大氣嘅自轉比赤道大氣長5分鐘[119]。木星係扁球體,所以赤道直徑比兩極嘅直徑長9275公里[3]

有三個系統用來参考木星嘅自轉。系統I喺北緯10度到南緯10度適用,週期係9h50m30.0s。系統II喺所有緯度都適用,週期係9h55m40.6s[120]。系統III最早由電波天文學定義,對應行星磁層嘅自轉,週期係木星嘅官方週期[121]

觀測

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木星通常係夜晚成個天入面第四光嘅天體(僅次太陽月球金星[89]。根據木星喺地球望落去嘅位置,佢嘅視星等可能會唔同[122]。平均視星等係−2.20,標準差係0.33[122]。當木星穿過近日點嗰陣,會發生中文衝 (天體位置),令佢更近地球[123]。接近衝嗰陣,木星會進入121日嘅逆行狀態,向後移動 9.9° ,然後返到順行狀態[124]

因為木星軌道喺地球軌道出面,因此從地球睇木星嘅相位角始終小於11.5°;因此,當通過地球望遠鏡觀察嗰陣,木星成日被照到幾乎光哂噉。只有接近木星嘅航天器可以影到新月形嘅木星[125]。小型望遠鏡通常會睇到木星嘅伽利略衛星同橫跨木星大氣層嘅雲帶。4-6 英寸口徑嘅望遠鏡會喺木星面對地球嗰陣睇到大紅斑[126][127]

探測史

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至少喺公元前7至8世紀,古巴比倫已經有對木星嘅觀測[128]。中國人將木星叫做歲星,並因應木星軌道週期而建立十二地支,並喺4世紀發展成十二生肖[129]。古代中國天文學家甘德話有粒小星星同木星「結盟」[130],可能係因為佢用肉眼觀察睇到木星其中一粒衛星。如果屬實,噉會比伽利略嘅發現早兩千年[131][132]

希臘天文學家托勒密喺《天文學大成》基於均輪同本輪起咗個行星模型,以解釋木星相對地球嘅運動,得出木星繞地球嘅周期4332.38日,即係11.86年[133]

1610年,伽利略發現咗四粒衛星(而家叫伽利略衛星),係證明哥白尼日心說嘅證據,噉令伽利略受到羅馬教廷嘅壓迫[134]

大紅斑可能早喺1664年就畀羅拔虎克觀測到,但喺1831年先由Heinrich Schwabe英文Heinrich Schwabe畫咗第一幅展示大紅斑細節嘅畫[135]。據報道,大紅斑喺1665年至1708年[136]、1883年同20世紀初多次消失[137]

1670年代,卡西尼發現衛星經過木星前後嘅時間比預期慢17分鐘,所以奧勒·羅默認為光唔會即刻傳到某個地方(卡西尼唔認同)[37],並以呢個時間差來估計光速[138][139]

卡西尼號影嘅木星

1892年,愛德華·愛默生·巴納德發現木衛五,後來被命名做Amalthea[140]。佢係最後一個用肉眼觀察望遠鏡而睇到嘅行星衛星[141]。1938年,有三個反氣旋特徵被發現,並被叫做"white ovals",有兩個喺1998年合併,並喺2000年吸收埋第三個,叫 Oval BA[142]

1955年,Bernard Burke 同 Kenneth Franklin 發現木星會發射22.2 mHz頻率嘅無線電波爆發,佢哋用爆發嘅周期來確定木星自轉速率[56]:36

由1973年開始就有太空探測器去訪問木星,先鋒10號喺最近木星嗰陣並傳咗關於木星特性同現象嘅資料[143][144]。喺呢一年之後,一啲太空探測器進行咗行星飛越並觀測木星。先鋒10同11號獲得咗木星大氣層同佢嘅幾粒衞星嘅特寫圖像,佢哋仲發現咗木星週圍嘅幅射比預期勁好多[45]:47[145]

太空探測器 最近木星嗰陣 距離(km)
先鋒10號 1973年12月3號 130,000
先鋒11號 1974年12月4號 34,000
航行者1號 1979年3月5號 349,000
航行者2號 1979年7月9號 570,000
尤利西斯號 1992年2月8號[146] 408,894
2004年2月4號[146] 120,000,000
卡西尼號 2000年12月30號 10,000,000
新視野號 2007年2月28號 2,304,535

1979年,航行者任務令人類對伽利略衛星了解更多,仲發現咗木星環,又證實咗大紅斑係反氣旋而且同先鋒號嘅相對比之下由橙色變咗做深啡色[45]:87[147]

尤利西斯係下一個同木星相遇嘅太空探測器。佢研究咗木星嘅磁層[146]。2000年,卡西尼號飛越木星,提供咗更高解像度嘅相[148]。之後,新視野號喺2007年飛越木星,木星嘅重力助推協助佢去冥王星[149],新視野號度咗木衞一火山嘅等離子體輸出,並詳細研究咗所有伽利略衛星[150]

朱諾號喺2016年7月4號到木星,目標係要由極地軌道研究木星,並打算喺廿個月內繞住木星行三十七個圈[151][63][152],喺任務期間,太空探測器可能會因為木星磁層嘅幅射而令儀器故障[153]。8月27號,朱諾號首次飛越木星並傳回咗第一張木星北極嘅相[154]。2018年6月,NASA將任務由同年7月延長到2021年7月,2021年1月又延長到2025年9月,並飛越咗一次木衛三,一次木衛二同兩次木衛一[155][156]。之後,佢會受控進入木星大氣入面分解,避免撞入衛星[157][158]

班科學家想研究木星嘅冰衛星,因為佢哋可能有地下液態海洋[159]。但試過開發嘅太空探測器JIMO同EJSM/Laplace都因為唔夠錢而放棄[160]。之後,呢啲計劃由歐洲太空總署嘅木星冰月探測器(JUICE)喺2023年4月14號發射而實現[161],而NASA都計劃喺2024年發射歐羅巴快船[162]

衛星

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木星有95粒已知天然衛星[17],隨著觀測技術嘅進步,呢個數字可能會增加[163]。衛星入面有79粒直徑細個10公里[17],最大嗰四粒統稱伽利略衛星,通常喺夜晚地球用雙筒望遠鏡可以睇到[164]

伽利略衛星

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伽利略衛星係指由天文學家伽利略發現嘅衛星,分別係木衛一木衛二木衛三木衛四。其中木衛一、木衛二同木衛三嘅軌道形成咗拉普拉斯共振,木衛三轉一圈,木衛二就會轉兩圈,而木衛一就會轉四圈。而木星嘅潮汐力令佢哋嘅軌道呈圓形[165]

佢哋嘅軌道離心率令呢幾粒衛星接近木星嗰陣形狀彎曲,並喺遠離嗰陣變返球形[166]。噉嘅磨擦令衛星內部產生熱量,並體現咗喺木衛一嘅火山活動入面[166]。而喺木衛二表面比較年輕嘅地質年都體現咗木星令佢嘅表面更換咗[167]

直徑 質量 軌道半徑 軌道週期
km % kg % km % days %
木衛一(埃歐) 3643 105 8.9×1022 120 421,700 110 1.77 7
木衛二歐羅巴 3122 90 4.8×1022 65 671,034 175 3.55 13
木衛三伽尼米德 5262 150 14.8×1022 200 1,070,412 280 7.15 26
木衛四(卡利斯托) 4821 140 10.8×1022 150 1,882,709 490 16.69 61
The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
伽利略衛星,從左到右數起分別係木衛一、木衛二、木衛三同木衛四

分類

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木星嘅衛星從前根據類似嘅軌道根數分為四組,每組四粒衛星[168]。之後,由於發現咗好多小型衛星,令情況變得更加複雜。木星嘅衛星目前有6個組,並有幾個冇組嘅衛星[169]

最入嗰八粒規則衛星喺木星赤道平面附近有近乎圓形嘅軌道,佢哋被認為同木星一齊形成,而其他衛星係不規則衛星,被認為係畀木星捕獲嘅小行星或者係佢哋嘅碎片。 每組嘅不規則衛星可能有一個共同嘅起源,可能係一個更大的衛星或分裂嘅捕獲天體[170][171]

規則衛星
內側群 喺內側嘅4粒小衛星,直徑細過200公里,軌道半徑細過200,000公里,軌道傾角細過0.5度。
伽利略衛星[172] 伽利略西門·馬里烏斯英文Simon Marius同時期發現嘅4粒衛星,軌道喺400,000公里到2,000,000公里。
不規則衛星
撒米斯圖群 得一粒衛星嘅群組,軌道介於伽利略衛星同希馬利亞群半途嘅中間位置。
希馬利亞群 一個緊密嘅族群,軌道距離喺11,000,000公里至12,000,000公里。
卡普群 得一粒衛星嘅群組,喺亞南克群內緣,以順行方向繞木星運轉。
亞南克群 逆行軌道中文順行和逆行群組,邊界模糊,平均距離木星21,276,000公里,平均軌道傾角係149度。
加爾尼群 明顯嘅逆行群組,平均距離木星23,404,000公里,平均軌道傾角165度。
帕西法爾群 分散、特徵含糊嘅逆行集團,涵蓋所有最外層嘅衛星。

文化

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木星喺夜晚好容易以肉眼觀察睇到,即使喺日頭有陣時都會睇到,所以自古以來就為人所知[173]。喺巴比倫,木星代表佢哋嘅神 Marduk英文Marduk。佢哋利用木星沿黃道大約十二年嘅軌道來定義星宮[45]

羅馬人將木星命名做朱庇特,係羅馬神話嘅主神[174]。朱庇特喺希臘神話入面對應嘅神係宙斯,亦都係希臘人對木星嘅叫法[175]

喺東亞,基於中國嘅五行,呢粒行星被稱為木星[176][177][178],亦畀道教嘅人稱為福星中文福星。喺印度,木星被稱為 Brihaspati英文Brihaspati ,亦都被稱為 Guru ,意思即係上師中文上師[179]

[編輯]
  1. 軌道參數指嘅係木星系統嘅重心,同埋係精確J2000曆元入面嘅瞬時密切值。重心量已知係因為對比嘅係行星中心,佢哋無受到嚟自衛星運動影響導致每日唔同嘅可觀變化。>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 指1大氣壓嘅水平

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