𝛿 波

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呢個腦電波喺 1 秒之內有大約 4 個波,頻率大約 4 Hz,屬 Delta 波。

𝛿 波(英文:delta wave)係腦電波嘅一種,指頻率處於 0.5 至 4 Hz 之間嘅腦電波[1][2][3],同其他腦電波一樣,有得用腦電圖嘅方法量度[4]。佢係主要腦電波當中頻率最低嘅,一般都俾人認為反映一個冇乜活動嘅腦,係孲𤘅子個腦最常有嘅腦電波,而喺正常嘅大人當中通常就會喺非快速動眼睡眠(non-rapid eye movement sleep,NREM sleep)嘅第三同第四階段嗰陣時出現。

個名出自希臘字母當中嘅「𝛿」。

概論[編輯]

研究[編輯]

  • 同其他腦電波一樣,Delta 波可以用腦電圖(EEG)嘅方法探測得到。本嚟學界對 Delta 波嘅定義係「頻率喺 1 至 4 Hz 之間嘅腦電波」,但係近期啲嘅研究就有興將個界限設喺「0.5 至 2.0 Hz」嗰度。Delta 波係古典腦電研究所描述嘅腦電波當中最低頻嘅,要去到廿一世紀頭嘅腦電研究先有嘗試睇啲再低頻啲嘅腦電波-即係頻率低到成 0.1 Hz 以下嘅腦電波[5]。
  • 喺一個正常健全嘅大人身上,Delta 波一般要去到瞓覺嘅第三階段當中先會出現,喺嗰陣個腦仲有至少 50% 嘅活動係高頻過 Delta 波嘅,而去到第四階段-隻動物瞓得最深嗰段-個腦就基本上由 Delta 波主導嗮,Delta 波佔嘅比例會超過 50% [6]。已知嘅哺乳類動物冚唪唥都會喺瞓覺嗰陣經過第四階段[7]。
  • Delta 波同 K-complex 呢種腦電現象有關:喺瞓覺嘅第三階段當中,K-complex 硬係會喺 Delta 波出現之前出現[8]。
  • 有神經科學家認為,瞓覺嗰陣嘅 Delta 波活動幫到個腦手做產生記憶嘅功能[9]。
  • 研究顯示,一個人如果食好少碳水化合物嘅話,佢個腦會多咗 Delta 波,而且瞓覺嗰陣會多咗第三同第四階段嘅慢波睡眠[10]。
  • Delta 波有性別差異:一般嚟講,同男人比起上嚟,女人嘅腦比較多 Delta 波,尤其係喺 30 零到 40 零歲嗰個年齡組別[11]。事實係,唔止人類係噉-喺多數嘅哺乳類動物當中,同公比起上嚟,啲乸嘅腦係多啲 Delta 波。
  • 印度教哲學著作當中嘅《不二論》(梵文:Advaita Vedānta;天城文:अद्वैत वेदान्त)有主張話如果一個人可以喺瞓得最深但係又冇喺度發夢嗰陣有意識嘅話,噉佢就達到咗一種極高層次嘅冥想狀態,呢種狀態叫「jagrat sushupti」。有學者相信呢種狀態同喺 Delta 波主導嘅睡眠當中嘅高大腦皮層活動有關[12]。

相關腦區[編輯]

發育[編輯]

一個人個腦入面嘅 Delta 波活動會隨年齡而有好大改變:研究發現,孲𤘅子大部份時間都係處於慢波睡眠(slow-wave sleep)當中嘅-即係話大多數時間佢哋嘅腦都處於俾 Delta 波支配嘅狀態,而且分析孲𤘅子嘅腦電圖數據顯示,孲𤘅子就算係瞓醒咗,個腦都仲係主要由 Delta 波支配住;一路去到個細路仔 5 歲嗰陣時,佢個腦都仲會有「醒住嘅腦嘅 Delta 波」呢回事[17];Delta 波要去到青春期先至會開始冇再喺個醒緊嘅腦嗰度出現-報告指,由 11 到 14 歲之間,醒住嘅腦嘅 Delta 波活動會下跌成 25% 噉多[18];隨住個人老化,個腦嘅 Delta 波活動會繼續跌,尤其係喺 40 零歲嗰陣會跌得最勁;到咗個人 75 歲嗰陣,個人嘅腦甚至仲可能會完全冇嗮第四階段睡眠同埋 Delta 波活動[19]。

意識同發夢[編輯]

Delta 波同意識以及發夢好有啦掕。發夢可以喺慢波睡眠-即係第三階段同埋由 Delta 波主導嘅第四階段-嗰陣時發生,而當一個大人個腦由 Delta 波主導嗰陣,基本上可以肯定佢唔係處於一個清醒嘅狀態,通常都唔會認知到周圍嘅環境。雖然係噉,瑜伽當中嘅瑜伽瞓覺(Yoga Nidra)技巧能夠令到一個人喺由 Delta 波主導嘅瞓覺階段嗰陣維持一定嘅意識[20]。

同病嘅啦掕[編輯]

Delta 波嘅異常同好多心理同生理方面嘅病都有關。區域性嘅 Delta 波喺大人當中正路嚟講應該係喺慢波睡眠嗰陣先會見到嘅,而如果一個醒緊嘅大人個腦出現 Delta 波就可能表示有問題,例如英國神經心理學家 William Grey Walter 就喺研究大腦皮層嘅腫瘤嗰陣觀察到醒緊嘅大人個腦度出現嘅 Delta 波。另一方面,又有好多病同瞓覺嗰時嘅 Delta 波受干擾-包括多咗或者少咗-有關係,好似係瞓覺嗰陣嘅 Alpha 波入侵現象同埋精神分裂噉,都涉及 Delta 波嘅異常。有陣時生理上嘅損害、營養上嘅異常、同埋腦化學嘅改變都會干擾到 Delta 波嘅正常活動[21][22]。

精神分裂[編輯]

有精神分裂(schizophrenia)嘅人嘅腦電活動會有異常,尤其係喺深層睡眠嗰陣佢哋嘅腦會少噉咗啲 Delta 波,而呢種缺失同精神分裂嘅某啲症狀有啦掕。喺慢波睡眠嗰陣時,精神分裂嘅患者同正常人比會少咗啲 Delta 波活動,而喺嚴重嘅精神分裂個案當中,通常醒緊嗰陣嘅 Delta 波就會多咗[23]。有份近期啲嘅研究顯示,喺正常嘅大人當中,右腦嘅額葉(大腦皮層最近額頭嗰忽)喺瞓覺嗰陣係零舍多 Delta 波嘅,但係呢種情況喺精神分裂症患者當中冇咗-佢哋個腦嘅 Delta 波相對平均噉分佈[24]。

異睡症[編輯]

異睡症(parasomnia)係睡眠障礙嘅一類,患者會喺瞓覺嗰陣出現異常嘅肌肉活動,包括咗夢遊、開口夢、同夜驚等嘅現象。研究顯示,異睡症嘅患者嘅慢波睡眠會受到干擾,患者喺 Delta 波活動高嗰陣零舍容易夢遊或者發開口夢,而發開口夢嘅人亦都會(同健康正常嘅人比起上嚟)比較多高度同步嘅 Delta 活動(hyper-synchronous Delta activity)-指瞓覺嗰陣有持續高電壓(去到 150 µV 以上)嘅 Delta 活動[25]。

柏金遜症[編輯]

柏金遜症(Parkinson's disease)患者成日都會有瞓覺上嘅異常,而佢哋個腦普遍都會有腦電波異常。Rotigotine 呢種用嚟醫柏金遜嘅藥俾人發現咗,會提高 Delta 波嘅活動同埋慢波睡眠,而有研究試過特登將會令到個腦出現 Delta 波活動嘅藥打落去大家鼠嘅黑質(Substantia nigra)嗰度,佢哋發現噉做會令到啲大家鼠出現類似柏金遜噉樣嘅症狀[26]。

酗酒[編輯]

研究顯示,酗酒(alcoholism),無論男女,都會令到個人瞓覺嗰陣少咗慢波睡眠同埋 Delta 波,並且令到佢瞓覺嗰陣多咗第一階段嘅睡眠同埋快速動眼。呢種影響係長遠嘅-就算個人戒咗酒好耐,佢個腦所受嘅呢啲影響都仲喺度[27]。

其他[編輯]

以下呢啲病都有研究發現話同 Delta 波異常有關:

睇埋[編輯]

腦電波[編輯]

參考書[編輯]

  • Brazier, M. A. B. (1970), The Electrical Activity of the Nervous System, London: Pitman.

攷[編輯]

  1. ↑ Knyazev, G. G. (2012). EEG delta oscillations as a correlate of basic homeostatic and motivational processes. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(1), 677-695.
  2. ↑ Feinberg, I., March, J. D., Floyd, T. C., Jimison, R., Bossom-Demitrack, L., & Katz, P. H. (1985). Homeostatic changes during post-nap sleep maintain baseline levels of delta EEG. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 61(2), 134-137.
  3. ↑ Brigo F (2011). "Intermittent rhythmic delta activity patterns". Epilepsy & Behavior (Review). 20 (2): 254–6.
  4. ↑ Walker, Peter (1999). Chambers dictionary of science and technology. Edinburgh: Chambers. p. 312.
  5. ↑ Hiltunen T1, Kantola J, Abou Elseoud A, Lepola P, Suominen K, Starck T, Nikkinen J, Remes J, Tervonen O, Palva S, Kiviniemi V, Palva JM. (2014). Infra-slow EEG fluctuations are correlated with resting-state network dynamics in fMRI. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(2): 356-362.
  6. ↑ "Glossary. A resource from the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Produced in partnership with WGBH Educational Foundation". Harvard University. 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-11. "The 1968 categorization of the combined Sleep Stages 3 – 4 was reclassified in 2007 as Stage N3."
  7. ↑ Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, and Quan SF for the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology and Technical Specifications, 1st ed.: Westchester, Illinois: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2007.
  8. ↑ De Gennaro, L., Ferrara, M., & Bertini, M. (2000). The spontaneous K-complex during stage 2 sleep: is it the 'forerunner' of delta waves?. Neuroscience Letters, 291(1), 41–43.
  9. ↑ 9.0 9.1 Hobson, J. , & Pace-Schott, E. (2002). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Sleep: Neuronal Systems, Consciousness and Learning. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(9), 679-693.
  10. ↑ Afaghi, A. , O'Connor, H. , & Chow, C. (2008). Acute Effects of the Very Low Carbohydrate Diet on Sleep Indices. Nutritional Neuroscience, 11(4), 146-154.
  11. ↑ Ehlers, C. L., and D. J. Kupfer. (1997). "Sleep: Do Young Adult Men and Women Age Differently?". J Sleep Res. 6 (3): 211–15.
  12. ↑ Sharma Arvind: Sleep as a State of Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta; State University of New York Press, 2004.
  13. ↑ Gross, Richard E. (1992). Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour. London: Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 112–113.
  14. ↑ Maquet, P., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Aerts, J., Peters, J. M., Luxen, A., et al. (1997). Functional neuroanatomy of human slow wave sleep. Journal of Neuroscience,17(8), 2807-2812.
  15. ↑ 15.0 15.1 Brandenberger, G. (2003). The Ulradien Rhythm of Sleep: Diverse Relations with Pituitary and Adrenal Hormones. Revue Neurologique, 159(11), S5-S10.
  16. ↑ Mistlberger, R. E., Bergmann, B. M., & Rechtschaffen, A. (1987). RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WAKE EPISODE LENGTHS, CONTIGUOUS SLEEP EPISODE LENGTHS, AND ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DELTA WAVES IN RATS WITH SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI LESIONS. [Article]. Sleep, 10(1), 12-24.
  17. ↑ Taylor, Eric; Rutter, Michael (2002). Child and adolescent psychiatry. Oxford: Blackwell Science. p. 162.
  18. ↑ "Brain Wave Changes In Adolescence Signal Reorganization Of The Brain". ScienceDaily. 2006-12-08.
  19. ↑ Colrain, I. M., Crowley, K. E., Nicholas, C. L., Afifi, L., Baker, F. C., Padilla, M., et al. (2010). Sleep evoked delta frequency responses show a linear decline in amplitude across the adult lifespan. [Article]. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(5), 874-883.
  20. ↑ Miller, Richard (February 10, 2010). Yoga Nidra (Pap/Com ed.). Boulder, CO: Sounds True, Incorporated. p. 104.
  21. ↑ Hales, Robert E.; Yudofsky, Stuart C. (2007). The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Neuropsychiatry). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
  22. ↑ Inui, Koji, Hozumi Kawamoto, Masahiko Kawakita, Kazuhisa Wako, Hiromichi Nakashima, Masanori Kamihara, and Junichi Nomura. "Temporal Delta Wave and Ischemic Lesions on MRI." Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 48.4 (1994): 891-98. Print.
  23. ↑ Alfimova, M. V., & Uvarova, L. G. (2007). Changes in the EEG spectral power during perception of neutral and emotionally salient words in schizophrenic patients, their relatives and healthy individuals from general population. [Article]. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova, 57(4), 426-436.
  24. ↑ Sekimoto, M., et al., Cortical regional differences of delta waves during all-night sleep in schizophrenia, Schizophr. Res. (2010).
  25. ↑ Pilon M; Zadra A; Joncas S et al. Hypersynchronous delta waves and somnambulism: brain topography and effect of sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2006;29(1): 77-84.
  26. ↑ Kryzhanovskii, G. N., A. A. Shandra, L. S. Godlevskii, and I. I. Mikhaleva. "Appearance of Parkinsonian Syndrome after Administration of Delta Sleep-inducing Peptide into the Rat Substantia Nigra." Biull Eksp Biol Med. 109.2 (1990): 119-21. Print.
  27. ↑ Colrain, I. M., S. Turlington, and F. C. Baker. "Impact of Alcoholism on Sleep Architecture and EEG Power Spectra in Men and Women." Sleep. 32.10 (2009): 1341-352. Print.
  28. ↑ EEG-defined subtypes of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Adam R Clarke, Robert J Barry, Rory McCarthy, Mark Selikowitz. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 1 November 2001 (volume 112 issue 11 Pages 2098-2105)
  29. ↑ Lopes, M.C., Guilleminault, C., Rosa, A., Passarelli, C., Roizenblatt, S., Tufik, S. Delta sleep instability in children with chronic arthritis. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2008;41(10): 938-43.