短期記憶

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短期記憶粵拼dyun2 kei4 gei3 jik1英文short-term memory)係記憶功能一種,負責儲住啲訊息,但儲嘅時間唔長。短期記憶令一個人唔使複誦都回想到幾秒前以至 1 分鐘前嘅訊息[1]。喺一隻動物感知到一啲訊息之後,啲訊息會喺極短嘅時間內儲喺感官記憶(sensory memory)入面,而感官記憶嘅訊息當中有一部份會俾啲神經細胞(neuron)傳入去短期記憶嗰度,用嚟做進一步嘅處理[2]。短期記憶係由個啲神經細胞之間稍瞬即逝嘅相互溝通維持嘅,尤甚係背外側前額葉皮層(dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex)同頂葉(parietal lobe)呢兩個腦區對短期記憶嘅運作嚟講零舍緊要[3][4]

一般認為,短期記憶,或者至少對文字嘅短期記憶,主要係以聽覺訊息(而唔係視覺訊息)嘅形式嚟儲起嘅:有研究發現,對受試者嚟講,要回想返一柞讀音相似嘅英文字母(例:「E、P、D」)難過回想一柞讀音唔似嘅字母(例:「H、Q、A」);相比之下,回想返一柞字型相似嘅字母並唔係明顯難過回想一柞字型唔似嘅字母[5]

容量[編輯]

短期記憶容量相當有限:美國心理學家佐治·米拿(George Miller)喺 1950 年代做咗一柞實驗,顯示短期記憶能夠儲起大約 7 件「物件」[6],而打後嘅研究者又有作出低啲嘅估計,估短期記憶能夠儲住 4 到 5 件物件,而呢個數字可以用分塊(chunking)嘅方法提升[7]:舉例說明,一個人喺嘗試記住一個 8 個位嘅電話號碼 2600 5600 嗰陣,個人可以將段數字分做兩橛分別 4 個位長而且各自有意義嘅數字串(「2600」同「5600」),令到佢個短期記憶由本嚟要記 8 件物件變成記 2 件。而電話號碼嘅設計亦都有運用呢條原則:世界各地嘅電話號碼好多時會將一段號碼分割做幾橛[8]

同工作記憶嘅啦掕[編輯]

睇埋:工作記憶

工作記憶(working memory)有陣時俾人當係短期記憶嘅同義詞,都係短期噉儲住訊息嘅記憶功能,不過有心理學家指出,工作記憶定義上係指「短期內儲住啲記憶,並且對啲訊息作出各種運算」嘅功能,所以概念上應該屬短期記憶嘅一種。

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  • Conrad, R.; Hull, A. J. (1964). "Information, acoustic confusion and memory span". British Journal of Psychology. 55 (4): 429–432. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1964.tb00928.x. PMID 14237884.
  • Cowan, N. (2001). "The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 24: 1–185. doi:10.1017/s0140525x01003922. PMID 11515286.

[編輯]

  1. Jensen O.; Lisman J.E. (2005). "Hippocampal sequence-encoding driven by a cortical multi-item working memory buffer". Trends in Neurosciences. 28 (2): 67–72.
  2. Fransen E.; Alonso A.A.; Hasselmo M.E. (2002). "simulations of the role of the muscarinic-activated calcium-sensitive non-specific cation current I(NCM) in entorhinal neuronal activity during delayed matching tasks". Journal of Neuroscience. 22: 1081–1097.
  3. Bodner, M., Kroger, J., & Fuster, J. M. (1996). Auditory memory cells in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neuroreport: An International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience.
  4. Butters, N., Samuels, I., Goodglass, H., & Brody, B. (1970). Short-term visual and auditory memory disorders after parietal and frontal lobe damage. Cortex, 6(4), 440-459.
  5. Conrad, R. (1964). "Acoustic Confusions in Immediate Memory". British Journal of Psychology. 55: 75–84.
  6. Miller, G.A. (March 1956). "The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information". Psychol Rev. 63 (2): 81–97.
  7. Miller, G.A. (March 1956). "The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information". Psychol Rev. 63 (2): 81–97.
  8. Cowan, N (February 2001). "The magical number 4 in short-term memory: a reconsideration of mental storage capacity 互聯網檔案館歸檔,歸檔日期2018年4月13號,." (PDF). Behav Brain Sci. 24 (1): 87–114, discussion 114–85.