記憶痕跡

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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記憶痕跡粵拼gei3 jik1 han4 zik1英文engram / memory trace)係指個入面儲住嘅一啲認知訊息(cognitive information),用嚟以某啲物理型式將記憶儲喺腦同第啲神經組織:理論上,一個腦係一個認知系統,曉由外界吸收訊息(感知),呢啲訊息會引致個腦裏面有電同化學訊號等嘅變化(心智表徵),呢啲訊息當中有啲唔俾個腦判定為「值得儲起做記憶」,而假設心身二元論(mind-body dualism)係假-假設心理現象完全係由神經系統嘅物理過程主宰嘅,一個記憶嘅形成理應會造成個腦嘅一啲微細嘅物理變化,而搵出點樣由個腦嘅物理變化睇出有乜記憶產生喺神經科學心理學等嘅領域上係一個重要嘅課題[1][2]

廿一世紀初嘅神經科學界經已確立咗,記憶痕跡並唔係存在於一個單一腦區嘅:神經科學界做咗好多實驗,例如係特登破壞一隻大家鼠嘅某個腦區,再睇吓呢個操作會點樣影響受試動物嘅記憶能力;結果發現,搵唔到有任何一個腦區係「一旦呢個區破壞咗,就會冇嗮啲記憶」嘅,小腦(cerebellum)、大腦皮層(cerebral cortex)、海馬體(hippocampus)、同杏仁核(amygdala)等等多個腦區都同記憶功能有關-一般認為噉即係話,記憶痕跡係分散喺個腦嘅各部份嘅[3](不過有神經科學家指出,某啲特定類型嘅記憶有可能係由某啲腦區掌控嘅)[4]

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  • Forgotten Ideas, Neglected Pioneers: Richard Semon and the Story of Memory, Daniel Schacter, 2001 ISBN 1-84169-052-X
  • Dudai, Y (2004). "The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram?". Annual Review of Psychology. 55: 51–86. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142050.
  • Josselyn, S.A. (2010). "Continuing the search for the engram: examining the mechanism of fear memories". Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 35 (4): 221–228. doi:10.1503/jpn.100015. PMC 2895151. PMID 20569648.

[編輯]

  1. Liu, X., Ramirez, S., Pang, P. T., Puryear, C. B., Govindarajan, A., Deisseroth, K., Tonegawa, S. (22 March 2012). Optogenetic stimulation of a hippocampal engram activates fear memory recall. Nature, 22 March 2012 (Vol. 484 Issue. 7394 p. 381-385).
  2. Ryan, T.J., Roy, D.S., Pignatelli, M., Arons, A., Tonegawa, S. (29 May 2015). Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia. Science, 29 May 2015 (Vol. 348 Issue. 6238 p. 1007-1013).
  3. Bruce, Darryl (2001). "Fifty Years Since Lashley's In Search of the Engram". Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 10 (3): 308–318.
  4. Stefanelli, T.; Bertollini, C.; Lüscher, C.; Muller, D.; Mendez, P. (2016). "Hippocampal somatostatin interneurons control the size of neuronal memory ensembles". Neuron. 89 (5): 1–12.

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