# 電荷

## 概論

### 摩擦起電效應

• 兩塊玻璃會互相排斥；
• 兩塊玻璃都會曉吸引兩舊樹脂；
• 兩舊樹脂會互相排斥。

### 微觀特性

${\displaystyle F=k_{e}{\frac {q_{1}q_{2}}{r^{2}}}}$

## 電荷守恆

${\displaystyle I=-{\frac {\mathrm {d} Q}{\mathrm {d} t}}}$；又或者可以寫做
${\displaystyle I=-{\frac {d}{dt}}\int _{V}\rho \,\mathrm {d} V}$

## 攷

1. Griffiths, David J. (2013). Introduction to Electrodynamics (4th ed.). Boston, Mas.: Pearson.
2. Panofsky, W. K., and M. Phillips, 1969, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.
3. James Clerk Maxwell. (1891). A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Dover Publications Inc.
4. Purcell, Edward M.; David J. Morin (2013). Electricity and Magnetism (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 766. ISBN 9781107014022.
5. Roller, Duane; Roller, D.H.D. (1954). The development of the concept of electric charge: Electricity from the Greeks to Coulomb. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
6. Hyperphysics - Magnetic Force
7. Roald K. Wangsness (1986). Electromagnetic Fields (2nd Ed.). Wiley.
8. Serway, Raymond A.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole.
9. McCormmach, R.; Jungnickel, C. (1996), Cavendish, American Philosophical Society, pp. 335–344.
10. Jefimenko, O.D. (1999). "Relativistic invariance of electric charge" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A. 54 (10–11): 637–644.
11. Singal, A.K. (1992). "On the charge invariance and relativistic electric fields from a steady conduction current". Physics Letters A. 162 (2): 91–95.