生產

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
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一間工廠喺度生產汽車
一班工人喺度做建築施工,生產建築物
一班人員喺度拍影片,生產影片。

生產粵拼sang1 caan2英文production)喺經濟學上係指透過結合唔同嘅物質(原材料)以及非物質(精神時間)輸入,嚟到製作出一啲可以用嚟消費-滿足到某啲人嘅慾望-嘅輸出嘅過程。舉幾個例說明[1][2]

  • 一間工廠嘅工人結合各種原材料加埋自己精神時間,最後製作出若干架汽車,而呢啲汽車可以滿足人(想要唔使吓吓去邊都行路)嘅慾望,消費者會願意為咗得到汽車付出資源(「資源」包括咗)。
  • 一班工人結合水泥等嘅各種原材料加埋自己精神時間,製作出一棟住得人嘅建築物,而呢棟建築物可以滿足人(想要有瓦遮頭等)嘅慾望,消費者會願意為咗得到呢棟建築物而付出錢等嘅資源,令建築公司有利可圖。
  • 一班人員喺度拍影片,最後製作出一段有吸引力嘅影片,而呢段影片可以(例如)上載去 YouTube,滿足觀眾(想要有娛樂)以及贊助商(想喺多人睇嘅影片嗰度打廣告)嘅慾望,所以觀眾會願意付出時間精神睇段片,而贊助商會肯俾錢要影片擁有者落廣告。

生產係經濟活動同增長嘅基礎。生產嘅目的係要滿足人嘅各種慾望,而生產所出嘅產品有幾能夠滿足慾望就往往係「經濟好唔好」嘅重要指標;有效率嘅生產能夠令人有效率噉滿衣食住行等嘅基本需要,變相令佢哋得閒諗(例如)點樣改善科技,而科技上嘅進步往往會提高生產效率-如是者,經濟就會係噉增長[3]

三大產業[編輯]

一個社會嘅生產可以分三大層[4]

  • 第一產業(primary production)包含農業捕魚業、以及採礦業等嘅行業,由自然界嗰度攞資源;
  • 第二產業(secondary production)包含建造業同各種工業,負責由原材料嗰度製作一啲消費者直接用得嘅產品,而且好多時會用返第一產業嘅產品做嘢,好似係用採礦業嚟嘅金屬生產各種機械以至用由捕魚業嚟嘅海產生產各種可以擺喺超市賣嘅海鮮罐頭呀噉;
  • 第三產業(tertiary production)包含各種嘅服務業,負責向消費者或者生產商提供服務,而佢哋嘅生產過程往往會或多或少噉使用第一產業同第二產業嘅產品,例如係一間餐廳利用由第一產業嚟嘅嘢(食材)同由第二產業嚟嘅嘢(各種餐具同埋枱櫈)嚟向消費者提供服務。

喺一個經濟體入面,唔同嘅產業會互相合作,創造經濟價值,滿足人嘅種種慾望[4]

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  • Courbois, R.; Temple, P. (1975). La methode des "Comptes de surplus" et ses applications macroeconomiques. 160 des Collect, INSEE,Serie C (35). p. 100.
  • Craig, C.; Harris, R. (1973). "Total Productivity Measurement at the Firm Level". Sloan Management Review (Spring 1973): 13–28.
  • Genesca, G.E.; Grifell, T. E. (1992). "Profits and Total Factor Productivity: A Comparative Analysis". Omega. the International Journal of Management Science. 20 (5/6): 553–568. doi:10.1016/0305-0483(92)90002-O.
  • Gollop, F.M. (1979). "Accounting for Intermediate Input: The Link Between Sectoral and Aggregate Measures of Productivity Growth". Measurement and Interpretation of Productivity. National Academy of Sciences.
  • Hulten, C. R. (January 2000). "Total Factor Productivity: A Short Biography". NBER Working Paper No. 7471. doi:10.3386/w7471.
  • Hulten, C. R. (September 2009). "Growth Accounting". NBER Working Paper No. 15341. doi:10.3386/w15341.
  • Kurosawa, K (1975). "An aggregate index for the analysis of productivity". Omega. 3 (2): 157–168. doi:10.1016/0305-0483(75)90115-2.
  • Loggerenberg van, B.; Cucchiaro, S. (1982). "Productivity Measurement and the Bottom Line". National Productivity Review. 1 (1): 87–99. doi:10.1002/npr.4040010111.
  • Pineda, A. (1990). A Multiple Case Study Research to Determine and respond to Management Information Need Using Total-Factor Productivity Measurement (TFPM). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  • Riistama, K.; Jyrkkiö E. (1971). Operatiivinen laskentatoimi (Operative accounting). Weilin + Göös. p. 335.
  • Saari, S. (2006a). Productivity. Theory and Measurement in Business. Productivity Handbook (In Finnish). MIDO OY. p. 272.
  • Saari, S. (2011). Production and Productivity as Sources of Well-being. MIDO OY. p. 25.
  • Saari, S. (2006). Productivity. Theory and Measurement in Business (PDF). Espoo, Finland: European Productivity Conference.
  • Sickles, R., and Zelenyuk, V. (2019). Measurement of Productivity and Efficiency: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[編輯]

  1. "Kotler", P., Armstrong, G., Brown, L., and Adam, S. (2006) Marketing, 7th Ed. Pearson Education Australia/Prentice Hall.
  2. Sickles, R., & Zelenyuk, V. (2019). Measurement of Productivity and Efficiency: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Mowery, D. C., & Rosenberg, N. (1991). Technology and the pursuit of economic growth. Cambridge University Press.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Fisher, A. G. (1939). Production, primary, secondary and tertiary. Economic record, 15(1), 24-38.

[編輯]

  • Elmer G. Wiens: Production Functions - Models of the Cobb-Douglas, C.E.S., Trans-Log, and Diewert Production Functions.