勞工供應

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢

勞工供應英文labor supply)喺經濟學上係指一個經濟體入面工人喺特定嘅人工之下願意工作嘅時數總量[1][2]

行為研究[編輯]

動物做嘅研究可以對勞工供應嘅問題有所啟示。想像一個噉嘅實驗:個研究者搵一柞白鴿返嚟,唔俾佢哋食嘢一陣,等佢哋肚餓(想要嘢食);跟住將啲白鴿(每一隻分別)擺喺一個實驗盒入面,俾隻白鴿喺個籠裏面自由噉探索,個籠有個掣,每當隻白鴿啄個掣,就會有嘢食;隻白鴿通常會好快噉發現呢一點,並且學識定時定候去啄個掣。喺呢個環境之下,「啄個掣」嘅動作可以想像成工作(要用能量同時間),「嘢食」嘅獎勵可以想像成賺到嘅錢(個體消耗能量同時間所得嘅獎勵),個研究者仲可以調較獎勵嘅特徵,而「件嘢食有幾大嚿」就可以想像成賺到嘅錢有幾多[1]

事實係,喺白鴿實驗嗰度可以觀察到好多喺人類經濟行為當中嘅行為,例如實驗顯示,當個研究者特登減少獎勵(將啄個掣得到嗰件嘢食嘅大細減少)嗰陣,白鴿通常會啄少個掣,甚至乎突然間唔啄(一般認為,件嘢食細嚿咗理應會令到隻白鴿要啄多啲個掣先可以食胞),呢種行為現象被指係好似人類嘅工作行為-人類嘅工人喺人工俾人減嗰時,會變到冇咁落力做嘢,甚至會罷工[1][3]

[編輯]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Battalio, R. C.; et al. (1981). "Income-Leisure Tradeoffs of Animal Workers". American Economic Review. 71 (4): 621–32.
  2. Kagel, John H.; Battalio, Raymond C.; Green, Leonard (1995). Economic Choice Theory: An Experimental Analysis of Animal Behavior. Cambridge University Press.
  3. K. Green and L. Green, "The Effect of Deprivation Level on Labor Supply in Pi geons: An Experimental Analysis of Eco nomic Behavior," presented at Fifth Annual Convention of the Association for Behavior Analysis, Michigan. 1979.