輕推理論

出自維基百科,自由嘅百科全書
跳去導覽 跳去搵嘢
根據輕推理論設計嘅尿兜;個兜中間有隻烏蠅嘅圖案喺度-呢個設計成功噉吸引屙尿嘅人瞄準啲,令男廁地板乾淨啲[1]
Stairs calories

輕推理論粵拼hing1 teoi1 lei5 leon6英文nudge theory)係行為經濟學上一個理論。輕推理論提出咗輕推(nudge)嘅概念:輕推理論家考慮人類喺做決策(唔淨只經濟決策)嗰陣時會用嘅思考捷徑,並且指出喺設計上,政策制定者可以用有關人類用嘅思考捷徑嘅知識,喺環境當中設低一啲細微嘅改變,令人類更加會做出理想嘅決策:喺改變前嘅環境下,人類會(因為佢哋用嘅思考捷徑)傾向做出某啲決策,而呢啲決策喺政策制定者眼中唔理想;於是政策制定者就需要喺環境當中做一啲細微嘅調整,而人類(繼續以思考捷徑行事)喺呢個新環境下會作出比較理想嘅決策。「喺環境嗰度做細微改動(輕輕推佢哋一吓),令到以思考捷徑行事嘅人類作出比較理想嘅決策」就係輕推理論嘅核心[2][3][4]

舉個例說明,有一班公共健康嘅研究者就試過噉做:佢哋目的係要研究點令人更加願意食得健康,做咗個實境實驗;佢哋搵咗一啲零食舖返嚟,假想消費者係以「買就手嘅零食」呢個簡單嘅思考捷徑行事嘅,於是就係噉咦改變咗啲舖頭嘅佈置(輕推),將啲健康嘅零食(好似係生果噉)擺喺就手嘅收銀處隔離,而啲冇咁健康嘅零食(好似係薯片噉)就擺去冇咁就手嘅地方;結果發現,呢個做法能夠有效噉令到消費者買多啲健康嘅零食同買少啲唔健康嘅零食[5]

[編輯]

  1. Thaler, Richard H., Sunstein, Cass R. (April 8, 2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Yale University Press.
  2. Campbell-Arvai, V; Arvai, J.; Kalof, L. (2014). "Motivating sustainable food choices: the role of nudges, value orientation, and information provision". Environment and Behavior. 46 (4): 453–475.
  3. Kosters, M., & Van der Heijden, J. (2015). From mechanism to virtue: Evaluating Nudge theory. Evaluation, 21(3), 276-291.
  4. Wilk, J. (1999), "Mind, nature and the emerging science of change: An introduction to metamorphology.", in G. Cornelis; S. Smets; J. Van Bendegem (eds.), EINSTEIN MEETS MAGRITTE: An Interdisciplinary Reflection on Science, Nature, Art, Human Action and Society: Metadebates on science, 6, Springer Netherlands, pp. 71–87.
  5. Kroese, F.; Marchiori, D.; de Ridder, D. (2016). "Nudging healthy food choices: a field experiment at the train station" (PDF). Journal of Public Health. 38 (2): e133–7.