溫情效應

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根據溫情效應嘅理論,幫助他人個心會有一股暖笠笠嘅感覺。

溫情效應粵拼wan1 cing4 haau6 jing3英文warm-glow effect)係行為經濟學上一個概念,用嚟解釋人類點解有陣時會做一啲對自己冇利嘅利他行為:根據溫情效應嘅理論模型,(多數嘅)人類喺覺得自己成功噉幫到身邊嘅人嗰陣,都會感受到一股喜悅同滿足嘅情緒。呢股情緒就係所謂嘅「溫情」(warm glow),會令到幫人嗰個人覺得舒服,一個人會因為想覺得舒服而作出(引起呢股情緒嘅)利他行為,而且研究發現,就算嗰個人嘅利他行為實際上唔係真係幫到人,又或者俾唔到乜嘢錢財上嘅得益佢自己[1],呢股「溫情」嘅力量依然足以引起利他行為[2][3][4]

溫情效應嘅諗頭相對於廿世紀上半期主導經濟學界嘅新古典經濟學(neoclassical economics)對人性嘅假設:新古典經濟學好多時都假設咗人類係完全自私自利嘅;而喺溫情效應嘅理論模型當中,多數人類查實都屬於「不純粹利他」(impurely altruistic)嘅-同時出於自私嘅慾望(想自我感覺良好)同真正無私嘅慾望先至做出利他行為嘅。溫情效應嘅概念可以用嚟解釋點解人類會肯做出捐錢或者做義工等嘅利他行為,幫手了解佢哋點解會將自己嘅資源分配去一啲唔會直接滿足自己慾望或者為自己帶嚟更大利益嘅行動嗰度[5][6]

應用例子[編輯]

小額貸款[編輯]

小額貸款(microloan)係指細額嘅個人信用貸款,好多時係由一啲收入唔高,還錢能力未必好強嘅人借嘅,但呢啲小額貸款好多時都能夠幫到呢啲人創業,幫到佢哋脫貧。有行為經濟學家就嘗試用溫情效應嚟分析小額借貸嘅現象:佢哋作咗個假說,估啲人之所以肯借呢啲小額貸款俾冇乜錢嘅創業家,唔係因為預期有乜嘢回報(呢啲創業家賺錢能力唔高),而係因為借呢啲錢俾到佢哋「幫到人」嘅滿足感,而且因為小額借貸借嘅錢量比較少,所以溫情效應能夠左右啲人借細額錢嘅意慾;跟住佢哋就諗,如果上述嘅假說係正確嘅,噉呢啲借小額信貸嘅人喺借錢嗰陣同人講自己幾有需要理應會令到啲借貸人更加有意願借錢;研究結果發現,呢個假說受到支持-啲人借小額貸款似乎真係局部出於溫情效應嘅作用[7]

睇埋[編輯]

參考[編輯]

  • Diamond, Peter; Vartiainen, Hannu (2012). "Models Involving 'Warm Glow'". Behavioral Economics and Its Applications. Princeton University Press. pp. 62–65. ISBN 978-1-4008-2914-9.
  • Andreoni, James (2006). "Philanthropy". In Kolm, Serge-Christophe; Ythier, Jean Mercier (eds.). Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity: Applications. Elsevier. pp. 1202–1223. ISBN 978-0-444-52145-3.

[編輯]

  1. Elster, Jon (2011). The Valmont Effect: The Warm-Glow Theory of Philanthropy. Oxford University Press. pp. 67–83.
  2. Andreoni, James (1989). "Giving with Impure Altruism: Applications to Charity and Ricardian Equivalence". Journal of Political Economy. 97 (6): 1447–1458.
  3. Andreoni, James (1990). "Impure Altruism and Donations to Public Goods: A Theory of Warm-Glow Giving". The Economic Journal. 100 (401): 464–477.
  4. Kohler, Stefan (2011). "Altruism and fairness in experimental decisions". Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 80 (1): 101–109.
  5. Kohler, Stefan (2011). "Altruism and fairness in experimental decisions". Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 80 (1): 101–109.
  6. Habel, Johannes; Schons, Laura Marie; Alavi, Sascha; Wieseke, Jan (2016). "Warm Glow or Extra Charge? The Ambivalent Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities on Customers' Perceived Price Fairness". Journal of Marketing. 80 (1): 84–105.
  7. Allison, T. H., McKenny, A. F., & Short, J. C. (2013). The effect of entrepreneurial rhetoric on microlending investment: An examination of the warm-glow effect. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(6), 690-707.